New York Style of Parenting I

Peer responses. Each 50 words. APA format

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Peer # 1 Alexandria

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Parenting is not easy. In fact, it is one of the hardest jobs in the world. Working with parents of middle schoolers on a daily basis, I am consistently observing various parenting styles and parenting trends and how that impacts the child. Parenting styles can be broken down into four categories: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parenting. Authoritarian parenting can be seen as a parent who has high control and low warmth. These are your extremely strict parents with very firm rules not allowing the child to have a voice in their home structure. Permissive parenting is the opposite in which parents create a warm home but have little to no control or rules in the house. Authoritative parenting is defined as parents who have high control but also have high warmth. These parents hold their children to high expectations but still express their love and care for them while also giving them a voice in the home. Uninvolved parenting is defined by low control and low warmth essentially that the parent is detached or not involved in the rearing of the child (Juntunen et. al, 2016). Parenting styles certainly have an influence on young adult behavior. How we are raised molds us into the adults we become. For example, individuals who grow up in an authoritarian household typically grow up to be insecure, apprehensive and distant from peers while individuals who grow up in authoritative households typically develop into well-adjusted, assertive, and cooperative adults (Juntunen et. al, 2016).

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It has been very interesting observing firsthand how the trends in parenting have changed with time. We seem to be veering towards parents being too overprotective of their children and essentially being “lawnmower parents” who eliminate any possible risk or potential failure or hurt for their child. This is becoming more and more rampant in the community in which I work where parents are scared to upset their children or have firm rules with them. They seem to rather be their friend than their parent and while I think warmth and positive relationships are important, it also causes much harm to let the child run the home. I feel that this is not a positive trend as it eliminates any possible adversity for those children so when life difficulties occur when they are older, they do not know how to cope. My principal and I speak daily about how our jobs have evolved from working with the kids to now spending a significant amount of time as parent coaches. Not to say that there are not parents who are doing fantastic jobs creating that structure and warmth in their homes, however, more and more parents are not allowing their children to make mistakes or fail which truly does not help them learn or develop resiliency.

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Emerging adulthood is a very interesting life stage. I can speak firsthand as this is the stage I am in right now. It is interesting because you still have aspects of yourself that are still developing and growing while still dealing with adult responsibilties like a a job, bills, finding a life partner, and starting to consider having children of your own. Emerging adulthood feels like you are stuck between both identities of adolescence and adulthood – enjoying the independance yet coping with so much change and responsibilties. This is the life stage in which one is faced with Intimacy vs. Isolation which should be a consideration when looking at prevention programming. Many young adults have to move to new cities for work and making friends at this age can be a challenge. Creating social groups for individuals to connect and share can be a very effective preventative option to increase social connection. In addition, offering small counseling groups and psychoeducational programs that teach about coping with transition and life change can be very effective.

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Reference:

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Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

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Peer #2 Elizabeth

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In the article, Adjustment of College Freshmen it discusses three different types of parenting styles which are authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive (Schnuck & Handal, 2011). Authoritarian parents are very black and white. You are right or wrong, and don’t have discussions with their children just expect them to listen. They do a lot of punishing without discussion. Authoritative parents allow their children to be heard, value their input, and allow the children to ask questions. The child knows you are in charge but you validate their feelings. Permissive parents have rules yet they don’t enforce them. They think the kids can figure it out on their own and don’t usually give any consequences.

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Parenting styles have huge impacts on young adult behaviors. Authoritative parenting styles can lead to low self-esteem, and inability to feel confident making decisions for themselves (Morin, 2019). They often don’t feel their opinions matter and that directly affects the way they handle personal, professional and romantic relationships. Authoritative parenting style are more likely to become responsible adults and feel comfortable sharing their opinions (Morin, 2019). Permissive parenting styles have students who are more likely to struggle academically and follow them into college years (Morin, 2019). They tend to have children who struggle with authority figures and have behavioral problems (Morin, 2019).

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Emerging into adulthood can be seen in the three main areas of identity exploration: love, work, and world views (Arnett, 2000). When forming their identity, it involves pursuing various life possibilities and gradually moving toward making enduring decisions (Arnett, 2000). When looking at the parenting styles you can see how each one will positively or negatively impact love, work and world views. Each adult will go through the world using their experiences as their perspectives and those perspectives can either hinder or help them into adulthood. Authoritative parenting seems to be the best for making a well-rounded child become a well-rounded adult. The child feels confident in who they are, what they want, what they need, how to maneuver in the world, and ask for help.

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Prevention Programs for youth to that can help with coping, thriving, learning, learning new perspective, and understanding that they don’t have to repeat their childhood. They can learn and grow from it. Prevention programs that can be helpful are before and after school programs, YMCA, Boys and Girls Club, Big Brothers and Big Sisters, community programs such as art, fitness, science, mentoring, life skills, and job training can allow youth to become the best version of themselves, while learning that they can have bright future. They can succeed and stop the cycle of poverty, drugs, prison, abuse, and more, in their adulthood.

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References:

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Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469

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Schnuck, J., & Handal, P. J. (2011). Adjustment of College Freshmen as Predicted by Both Perceived Parenting Style and the Five Factor Model of Personality—Personality and Adjustment. Psychology, 02(04), 275–282. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2011.24044

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Morin, A. (2019, July 12). 4 Types of Parenting Styles and Their Effects on Kids. Verywell Family. https://www.verywellfamily.com/types-of-parenting-…

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Peer #3 Laura

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For many decades, parenting approaches have been characterized in broad, global terms. These terms reflect Baumrind’s parenting typology, which describes four, pattern-based, parenting approaches. Though parenting styles have shifted from the set boundaries described in Baumrind’s model, one approach remains the most beneficial for children’s overall development. This approach is the authoritative parenting style (Smetana, 2017). In this approach, parents place high demands and expectations on children, but equally display love and warmth liberally. This democratic, parenting style is considered the most effective parenting method in numerous cultures, because it contributes to positive adjustments, appropriate socioemotional development, higher cognition, and academic success in children through adulthood (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). As such, authoritative parenting is currently widespread throughout Western and non-Western cultures alike, in various socioeconomic conditions and ethnic backgrounds. Interestingly, current trends among individuals in the African American culture incorporate bicultural parenting practices to include a stringent, authoritarian parenting style with the authoritative parenting approach. However, recent studies explain that this style is beneficial in this culture because it closely aligns with protective factors needed to strengthen children in vulnerable, socioeconomic situations (Smetana, 2017). Likewise, individuals in the Asian American culture currently incorporate bicultural parenting practices as well. This culture integrates the use of both an authoritarian style of parenting, with supportive parenting to infuse traditional parenting with present-day life in the Chinese-American culture (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). Other parenting trends have shifted due to declining marriage rates, single parent households, two working parents, growing trends in same-sex marriage and parenthood, and more diversified, family living arrangements (Ulferts, 2020). Additionally, current, parenting strategies include utilizing online education opportunities, employing more telehealth preventive services and interventions, and using virtual support services for resources, guidance, and information (Ulferts, 2020). Though various changes have occurred in family dynamics, parenting approaches and trends all lean into the application of positive parenting practices and an authoritative parenting style. These practices encompass supportive relationships between the parent and child, and employ positive reinforcement strategies to increase developmentally appropriate behaviors (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2021).

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Parenting styles can positively or negatively influence young adult behaviors. Recent studies report that young adults raised with an authoritative parenting style have higher self-esteem, stronger moral development, increased motivation, and better academic performance. Likewise, these young adults are less likely to consume alcohol, succumb to negative peer pressure, and engage in risky behaviors (Parra et al., 2019). Authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles produce insecurity, hostility, apathy, internalization and externalization of behaviors, and poor socioemotional development (Parra et al., 2019). As such, mental health workers can help teach positive parenting techniques, encouraging secure parent-child relationships, foster positive role modeling, and provide resources and support to complex, family dynamics (Juntunen & Schwartz).

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Emerging adulthood is the stage in which young people begin the transition to autonomy in work, love, and worldviews. Emerging adults pursue their own identity through independent, decision-making efforts, working to become financially independent, and engaging in closer, personal relationships (Juntunen & Schwartz, 2016). This can be a difficult adjustment with varying degrees of success. As emerging adults work to develop a sense of identity in every aspect of their lives, they often engage in risky, reckless behavior. This can cause lasting damage in relationships and complex decisions. As such, one method to promote healthy relationships in emerging adults is in preventive mentoring programs. These programs promote resiliency, and lower risk-inducing behaviors in emerging adults. As such, prevention programs that promote mentoring partnerships between emerging adults with experienced, caring mentors help emerging adults with problem-solving and decision making challenges (Schwartz & Petrova, 2019). Another preventive program involves family-based, preventive interventions. In these programs, primary caregivers are taught techniques to mentor and build close relationships with emerging adults. Studies report that family-based interventions reduce risky behaviors with alcohol, illicit drug use, and casual sex (Schwartz & Petrova, 2019). Lastly, a prevention program that focuses on the concept of prevescalation, or the goal of preventing the escalation in risky behaviors, rather than just preventing initiation, helps emerging adults interrupt the progression of problematic behaviors (Schwartz & Petrova, 2019).

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References:

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Juntunen, C.L. & Schwartz, J.P. (Eds). (2016). Counseling across the lifespan (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://viewer.gcu.edu/V6W8wF

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Parra, Á., Sánchez-Queija, I., García-Mendoza, M., Coimbra, S., Egídio Oliveira, J., & Díez, M. (2019). Perceived parenting styles and adjustment during emerging adulthood: A cross-national perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(15), 2757. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695850/

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Smetana, J.G. (2017, February). Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 19-25. https://www.sas.rochester.edu/psy/people/faculty/smetana_judith/assets/pdf/Smetana_2017_CurrentResearch.pdf

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Schwartz, S.J. & Petrova, M. (2019, January 14). Prevention science in emerging adulthood: A field coming of age. Prevention Science, 20, 305-309. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11121-019-0975-0

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Ulferts, H. (2020, June 9). Why parenting matters for children in the 21st century: An evidence-based framework for understanding parenting and its impact on child development. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/129a1a59-en.pdf?expires=1621364502&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=47E737074464AC2BE244A5D7E3FE4A94


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