MCCMCC Atrazine Causes Endo P

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Feminization of male frogs in the wild

Hayes et al. – 2002 – Feminization of male frogs in the wild.pdf

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Hayes T, Haston K, Tsui M, Hoang A, Haeffele C, Vonk A. 2002. Feminization of male frogs in the wild. Nature. 419(6910):895–896.

Atrazine-Induced Hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens): Laboratory and Field Evidence

Hayes Tyrone et al. – 2003 – Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in Ame.pdf

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Hayes T, Haston K, Tsui M, Haeffele C, Vonk A. 2003. Atrazine-induced hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American leopard frogs (Rana pipiens): laboratory and field evidence. Environmental Health Perspectives. 111(4):568–575.


Questions

Question 1: What is the hypothesis that the authors are testing? In one sentence each, what two studies did the authors perform to test the hypothesis?

Question 2: Describe at least two forms of controls that the studies use. Are they positive or negative controls?

Question 3: Do you think the lack of atrazine-free natural sites is a problem for this study? Why or why not?

The EPA originally ignored Dr. Hayes’ studies when making policy decisions because of claims that they were not statistically sound. After Syngenta lost a class-action lawsuit in 2012, internal company emails revealed that they had attempted to slander Dr. Hayes.

According to company e-mails, Syngenta was distressed by Hayes’s work. Its public-relations team compiled a database of more than a hundred “supportive third party stakeholders,” including twenty-five professors, who could defend atrazine or act as “spokespeople on Hayes.” The P.R. team suggested that the company “purchase ‘Tyrone Hayes’ as a search word on the internet, so that any time someone searches for Tyrone’s material, the first thing they see is our material.” The proposal was later expanded to include the phrases “amphibian hayes,” “atrazine frogs,” and “frog feminization.” (Searching online for “Tyrone Hayes” now brings up an advertisement that says, “Tyrone Hayes Not Credible.”)

Excerpt from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/02/10/a-valuable-reputation (Links to an external site.)

Question 4: What do you think about the excerpt above? What can scientists do to demonstrate that their work is sound?


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