History Question

Instructions

For this assignment, select one of the following options.

Option 1: Poetry
Select any 2 poems about the Holocaust. You can select from the following list of poets/poems or conduct additional research on Holocaust poetry.

Bronislawa Wajs: Tears of Blood
Primo Levi: Buna
Chaim Nachman Bialik: After My Death; On the Slaughter
Martin Niemöller: First They Came for the Jews
Mary Elizabeth Frye: Do not stand at my grave and weep
Carl Sandburg: Grass
Miklós Radnóti: Postcard 1; Postcard 2; Postcard 3; Postcard 4
Bertolt Brecht: The Burning of the Books; Parting; The Mask of Evil
Ber Horvitz: Der Himmel [The Heavens]
Yala Korwin: Passover Night 1942; The Little Boy with His Hands Up
Michael R. Burch: Something
Paul Celan: Death Fugue; O, Little Root of a Dream

Write an analysis of each poem, including the following information:

  • Explain the background on the author, especially in relation to the Holocaust.
  • Explain the content of the poem – what story or message is it trying to tell?
  • How does the poem relate to the bigger picture of the Holocaust?
  • How effective is the poem in relating the Holocaust to readers?

Option 2: Art
Select any 2 of works of art about the Holocaust. You can select from the following list or conduct additional research on Holocaust art.

Morris Kestelman: Lama Sabachthani [Why Have You Forsaken Me?]
George Mayer-Marton: Women with Boudlers
Bill Spira: Prisoners Carrying Cement
Jan Hartman: Death March (Czechowice-Bielsko, January 1945)
Edgar Ainsworth: Belsen
Leslie Cole: One of the Death Pits, Belsen. SS Guards Collecting Bodies
Doris Zinkeisen: Human Laundry, Belsen: April 1945
Eric Taylor: A Young Boy from Belsen Concentration Camp
Mary Kessell: Notes from Belsen Camp
Edith Birkin: The Death Cart – Lodz Ghetto
Shmuel Dresner: Benjamin
Roman Halter: Mother with Babies
Leo Breuer: Path Between the Barracks, Gurs Camp
Leo (Lev) Haas: Transport Arrival, Theresienstadt Ghetto
Jacob Lipschitz: Beaten (My Brother Gedalyahu)
Norbert Troller: Terezin
Anselm Kiefer: Sternenfall

Write an analysis of each artwork, including the following information:

  • Identify the title, artist, date completed, and medium used.
  • Explain the content of the artwork – what do the images show?
  • How does the artwork relate to the bigger picture of the Holocaust?
  • How effective is the artwork in relating the Holocaust to viewers?

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page

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History Question

Civ Essay Prompt

FORMAT

Short essay

Length: Your paper should be at least 300 words, but be thorough.

Content: Your essay must contain the following elements: 1) a thesis (underlined in text), 2) an analysis of the elements in the thesis, 3) supporting evidence (examples from course readings), and 4) a connective synthesis of the different elements in your argument. Your essay also must reflect a sense of order and avoid major grammatical errors.

PROMPT

The quotations below offer several interpretations of the role of storytelling in our understanding of history, civilization, and culture.

“Very few things happen at the right time, and the rest do not happen at all: the conscientious historian will correct these defects.”- Herodotus

“Poets and story-tellers are guilty of making the gravest misstatements when they tell us that wicked men are often happy, and the good miserable; and that injustice is profitable when undetected, but that justice is a man’s own loss and another’s gain.” – Plato

“All great literature is one of two stories; a man goes on a journey or a stranger comes to town.”- Leo Tolstoy

“Only the story can continue beyond the war and the warrior. It is the story that outlives the sound of war-drums and the exploits of the brave fighters…The story is our escort; without it we are blind… It is the thing that makes us different from cattle.”- Chinua Achebe

This semester you have read a number of different texts. Some were told by bards and poets, others by historians and philosophers. Using one of the quotations above, develop an argumentative essay on the role of storytelling in our understanding of civilization and/or the human experience. Build on the ideas from the quotations to construct an argument about the relationship between culture, history, and storytelling. In your essay, use three examples from the readings assigned this semester as evidence for your interpretation of this relationship. This evidence can include historical events and primary sources covered in the course.

Be as specific as you can and provide as many details from the course as possible in addressing this prompt.

* Some examples from the readings assigned this semester

Candide, by Voltaire: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/19942/19942-h/19942-h.htm (Links to an external site.)

Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/219/219-h/219-h.htm (Links to an external site.)

Confessions, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3913/3913-h/3913-h.htm (Links to an external site.)

The Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx: http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/61/pg61-images.html (Links to an external site.)

“The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave”:

https://www.google.com/books/edition/Narrative_of_the_Life_of_Frederick_Dougl/gE5nZ0jDwiwC?hl=en&gbpv=1&printsec=frontcover (Links to an external site.)

The Poetry of World War I:

  • The Second Coming by William Butler Yeats

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43290/the-second-coming (Links to an external site.)

  • Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46560/dulce-et-decorum-est

*Due on Wednesday night

* One page only or two max


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History Question

Part 1 (2 paragraphs)

Wesley Lowery and Nikole Hannah Jones (Links to an external site.)

Watch the Video in 2016 and use it to analyze the recent death of Daunte Wright and the Chauvin Trial decision.

Poem: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (Links to an external site.)

If you are stopped by police what is your survival plan to help you to possibly walk away? 10 steps 2) how do you restore /recover your equilibrium to come back to yourself after an abusive traffic stop experience if you survived? What steps do you take to heal and continue a normal life without absorbing the toxicity? What should Black leadership do or have done in response to such tragedies? Use the history you have learned.

You are required to post 3 times;( your initial post and your response to two other classmates). Be sure to start your posts with your full name. You will be required to post before replying. Use the name of the person you are replying to each time. The First post must be submitted by Wednesday at 11:59pm to be fair to your fellow classmates and give them time to respond. Replies will be accepted through Sunday at 11:59pm but give yourself time to reply thoroughly , in depth , and thoughtfully to each post. Please use Netiquette rules. *** Student information will be given once I turn in part 1

Part 2

(2 paragraphs)

After reading James Baldwin’s, Letter to my Nephew(PDF), answer all of the following discussion questions:

What is Baldwin’s main argument in this essay? What do you think prompted James Baldwin to write this letter to his nephew, apart from the anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation? Does this seem like a real personal letter that he later decided to publish, or do you think it was written for a wider audience, beyond his nephew? What do you think Baldwin means when he notes, “his father became so holy partly because he believed what white people said about him”? What does Baldwin mean by, “innocence that is the crime of his countrymen” (white people)? In what sense are “acceptance” and “integration” and “love” the only hope for these (white) people?


Part3

(800 words)

Many changes were wrought by WWI and WWII on Africans and African Americans during and between World War I and World War II. Describe those changes in detail especially differentiating the social change both for Africans and African Americans who fought in the war(s). Compare their experiences to those who remained on the home front(s)? Recap information not only from Chapter 19 but 17 and 18 as well. How did these changes bring about Black Internationalism?Chapter17focus

:The Black Cabinet

New Deal Era Programs

Organized Labor

On. the Left

Political Resurgence

Harvest of Artistic Expression

In the Throes of Economic Depression

‘Chapter 18

In military service

Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy

Keep the Home Fires Burning

Chapter 19

Labour and Civil Rights

Truman and Civil Rights

Fighting for Civil Rights in the Courts

Literary and Dramatic Arts

Black Internationalism

Intellectual Crosscurrents




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history question

In Topics #1 and #2, we examined the origins and events of European exploration in the Americas. We traced which European nations explored and colonized different parts of the Americas. For Discussion Board #1, write a post where you address one of the following questions about Christopher Columbus, the Spanish conquistadores or the Lost Colony of Roanoke. Just select one of the questions for the basis of your post. Do not try to answer all. After your initial post, you may write and reply to other posts if you are interested in exploring additional questions. Here are the questions you can address in your post:

1) Since Christopher Columbus’ monumental 1492 voyage to the Americas, different generations have interpreted in many different ways the Italian explorer’s life, actions and historical legacy. In the 19th century, Columbus was seen as heroic and visionary, the brave intrepid explorer who crossed the Atlantic and brought the Americas to the attention of the Europeans. This subsequently brought European colonization to the Americas, eventual new nations, and future globalization bringing an end to the isolated and fragmented pre-modern world. However, in the late 20th and early 21st century, views of Columbus have dramatically shifted. Columbus was now portrayed as a villain, a destroyer, even invader, who brought more harm than good to history and our own time. Destruction of Native American peoples and the inception of African slavery in the Americas are referenced as more destructive consequences of Columbus’ 1492 arrival.

Therefore based on this present-day view of Columbus, write a post addressing one of these two questions or you may combine both:

a. Since Christopher Columbus typifies such a major historical figure whose actions changed the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of people, how do we assess, if possible, his accurate historical legacy? Should we judge his actions based on the values and attitudes of his time (15th and 16th centuries)? Or should we assess his actions on how we feel about him today, through the lens of our current values, feelings and attitudes? This question of course plays into the challenge that historians face when establishing criteria to assess historical figures who lived so long ago.

b. Offer your own interpretation of Columbus’ historical legacy. Is it an overall positive or overall negative legacy? Or do you believe it is a combination of both? Provide as much support and reasoning with your response as possible.

2. Historians have offered various reasons explaining why the Spanish conquistadores conquered and overwhelmed the Native American peoples and their land with stunning speed. These reasons include guns, horses, technological superiority, diseases, treachery, greed, religious zeal, nationalist aspirations, etc. What do you believe is the dominant reason and why? Or do you believe there is no dominant reason but a multiplicity of factors? Provide your best assessment with insightful support. You may expand on what was covered in the online lecture or offer new ideas and interpretations.

3. Based on the story of the Lost Colony of Roanoke covered in the online lecture “Elizabethan England and Early English Colonization,” what do you believe happened to the missing colonists? Offer your best reasoning and explanation with insightful support.

Here are your instructions and criteria for this Discussion Board:

  • Your post should clearly reflect that you are answering one (1) of the three questions. Do not attempt to answer them all.
  • Provide insightful and well-reasoned support in your post. Show serious reflection of thought.
  • Your written post should be between 75-150 words. You may write more, but don’t be excessive; don’t write less than this word minimum; this word range should be enough to develop your ideas concisely.
  • Remember don’t copy and paste material from the internet. The post must be your own original writing.
  • Keep in mind that you must post first before seeing other classmates’ posts. To begin your post, point and click on Reply and a text box will appear. Then after you have reviewed what you written, then you can click Post Reply. Then you’ll be able to read your classmates’ posts.
  • Remember to follow the rules of civility and proper academic conduct in your posts. Discussing Columbus and the Spanish conquistadores can be a very sensitive topic. Write your post with maturity and serious reflection. Avoid vulgarity, rudeness, and insensitive language. You may disagree with someone in a reply, but be respectful. And above all else, DO NOT PERSONALLY ATTACK anyone for their views.
  • You are responsible for creating your original post.

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History Question

The broad topics of study for this Themed Essay assignment are Reconstruction, Westward Expansion in U.S. History from 1861 to 1895, and the effects of the Industrial Revolution up to 1920, including American Imperialism and the Gilded Age of Progressivism. Make sure you selected subjects to summarize through your theme selections that are appropriate within these topics and your study of chapters 14-19. See LIST OF THEMES here.

Regarding the Themed Research Essays

The purpose of the 2 Themed Research Essay assignments is to familiarize you with a “new” methodology of studying history (“new” because this is my own creation). In my lifetime of studying the past, I have seen certain reoccurring “themes” that help us understand the course of human events in this discipline we call history. I have also provided here the LIST OF THEMES. The general objective of your Themed Research Essay is to summarize a subject in history studied during the grading period in which the essay is assigned THROUGH the lens of a theme found in my list of themes. Example, if you were in an Early World History course and wanted to write about Alexander the Great, you would then choose to summarize the history of him through a theme, such as “Power of Personality,” where you might discuss his military leadership as conqueror of the world. OR you could talk about him through the theme of “Pivot Points in History” and talk about how he ushered in the Hellenistic Era and changed the political and cultural face of the world. Those are examples. You will choose 3 separate themes and write about 3 separate subjects from any of the history study during the grading period in which the essay is assigned through the lens of the themes you choose. Look at the STUDENT SAMPLE and see how they have formatted their 3 sections of the essay. For each subject you discuss through the lens of a theme, you need to quote your textbook OR an outside secondary scholarly source of your choosing once and ONE primary document found from either within your Mindtap Ebook chapters OR from outside research. (See further details about your sources below). Use a different primary document for each subject you write on. You must include a properly formatted Works Cited listing your primary sources separate from your secondary sources at the end. These assignments will help you learn to see history in terms of these themes. Some of these themes are quite self-explanatory and some are not. If you need more clarification, please do not hesitate to ask –> bonniesbiz@hotmail.com. There are 20 historical themes and 2 Themed Essay assignments you are expected to complete in the semester – therefore there are NO REPEATS of themes in these essays. You will use a total of 6 different themes in the semester for the 2 Themed Essay Assignments.

For each Themed Essay Assignment, you will write a minimum 750-word entry (CONTENT ONLY – Works Cited DOES NOT count towards minimum word count) about 3 historical topics that you can extrapolate from the subjects we have studied in that grading period in which the Themed Essay is assigned. EACH ENTRY PARAGRAPH WRITTEN ON A SUBJECT MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 270 WORDS. So the math here is easy = 3 different theme discussions of 270 word minimum each yields a total minimum word count of 810 words AND 3 separate themes X 2 Assignments = 6 historical themes used in the semester. I expect to see original analysis, interpretation and rhetorical content. Remember, I test all work for plagiarism.

REGARDING YOUR SOURCES FOR THESE ESSAYS.

You are required to quote your textbook twice AND ONE OTHER outside scholarly secondary source once in each Essay Assignment to support your analysis. You are also required to quote ONE primary document found from within your Mindtap chapters and TWO different primary documents of your choosing from outside sources to support your content as well. Each theme paragraph of the essay must use one secondary source and one primary source properly contextualized to support your arguments. THESE SOURCES MUST ALL BE PROPERLY QUOTED, CITED, AND VETTED IN YOUR ESSAY.

HOW TO FIND YOUR PRIMARY DOCUMENTS ONLINE – Refer to the Instructions section on How to Find Primary Documents online.

Reviewing the assigned Powerpoint “Vetting Your Sources” will help you find appropriate documents. PLEASE cite these sources according to my instructions. You must also give me a properly formatted Works Cited.

A Student Sample Essay has been provided – “NEXT” below. (This is from a World History Class in a different text so adjust to meet requirements for this class)

A Grading Rubric for the Themed Essays is also provided AFTER the Sample Essay.


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History Question

History 115—section 7440
Spring semester 2021
Professor Oscar Cañedo
Guidelines for NACLA assignment #3

This is the third and final installment of the three NACLA Report on the Americas reviews that you will submit for this class. This review is to be at least 3-4 pages and this due date of May 14, at 11:59 PM, corresponds to South America, such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, etc. Please submit your review through the Canvas in either of the following formats: doc, docx or PDF. Late papers will be accepted for one week after the assigned due date and will be assessed a full grade deduction. Please use both a title page and a works cited page (neither of these pages count toward your 3-4 pages of text). All 3 reports will count as a combined 30% toward your final grade. In your works cited page, compose your article entry in a format like this:

Schrader, Stuart, “From Police Reform to Police Repression: 50 Years after an Assassination,” NACLA Report on the Americas website (August 10, 2020).

Here is a list of articles from the NACLA website pertaining to regions for the May 14 due date. Everybody, please pick any one article from this list for your May 14 review. Just follow the same format for your first and second NACLA submissions. These articles range in date from February 2019 to April 2021 (The most recent articles are indicated in parenthesis with the publication date). For this list, I’m going in alphabetical order by nation:

Argentina:

Bolivia:

Brazil:

Chile:

Colombia:

Ecuador:

Paraguay:

Peru:

Suriname:

Uruguay:

Venezuela:

PreviousNext


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History Question

Scholars who disagree with the generally accepted start of the civil rights movement are typically challenging which event?

Multiple Choice

With what did Fannie Lou Hamer equate registering to vote?

Multiple Choice
  • fulfilling one’s destiny

What power did the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution give to President Johnson?

Multiple Choice

What did President Johnson have in common with President Franklin Roosevelt?

Multiple Choice
  • belief in a noninterventionist foreign policy

Which of the following demographic changes was the primary contributor to the turbulence of 1968?

Multiple Choice

How did technological changes most directly amplify the power of the 1968 protest movements?

Multiple Choice

Which of the following statements about change resulting from the 1968 uprisings is accurate?

Multiple Choice

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Multiple Choice

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Multiple Choice

What agreement was reached to end the Cuban missile crisis?

Multiple Choice

The “black power” movement generally sought to shift African Americans away from which of the following agendas?

Multiple Choice

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History Question

Regarding the Themed Research Essays

The purpose of the 2 Themed Research Essay assignments is to familiarize you with a “new” methodology of studying history (“new” because this is my own creation). In my lifetime of studying the past, I have seen certain reoccurring “themes” that help us understand the course of human events in this discipline we call history. I have also provided here the LIST OF THEMES. The general objective of your Themed Research Essay is to summarize a subject in history studied during the grading period in which the essay is assigned THROUGH the lens of a theme found in my list of themes. Example, if you were in an Early World History course and wanted to write about Alexander the Great, you would then choose to summarize the history of him through a theme, such as “Power of Personality,” where you might discuss his military leadership as conqueror of the world. OR you could talk about him through the theme of “Pivot Points in History” and talk about how he ushered in the Hellenistic Era and changed the political and cultural face of the world. Those are examples. You will choose 3 separate themes and write about 3 separate subjects from any of the history study during the grading period in which the essay is assigned through the lens of the themes you choose. Look at the STUDENT SAMPLE and see how they have formatted their 3 sections of the essay. For each subject you discuss through the lens of a theme, you need to quote your textbook OR an outside secondary scholarly source of your choosing once and ONE primary document found from either within your Mindtap Ebook chapters OR from outside research. (See further details about your sources below). Use a different primary document for each subject you write on. You must include a properly formatted Works Cited listing your primary sources separate from your secondary sources at the end. These assignments will help you learn to see history in terms of these themes. Some of these themes are quite self-explanatory and some are not. If you need more clarification, please do not hesitate to ask –> bonniesbiz@hotmail.com. There are 20 historical themes and 2 Themed Essay assignments you are expected to complete in the semester – therefore there are NO REPEATS of themes in these essays. You will use a total of 6 different themes in the semester for the 2 Themed Essay Assignments.

For each Themed Essay Assignment, you will write a minimum 750-word entry (CONTENT ONLY – Works Cited DOES NOT count towards minimum word count) about 3 historical topics that you can extrapolate from the subjects we have studied in that grading period in which the Themed Essay is assigned. EACH ENTRY PARAGRAPH WRITTEN ON A SUBJECT MUST BE A MINIMUM OF 250 WORDS. So the math here is easy = 3 different theme discussions of 250 word minimum each yields a total minimum word count of 750 words AND 3 separate themes X 2 Assignments = 6 historical themes used in the semester. I expect to see original analysis, interpretation and rhetorical content. Remember, I test all work for plagiarism.

REGARDING YOUR SOURCES FOR THESE ESSAYS.

You are required to quote your textbook twice AND ONE OTHER outside scholarly secondary source once in each Essay Assignment to support your analysis. You are also required to quote ONE primary document found from within your Mindtap chapters and TWO different primary documents of your choosing from outside sources to support your content as well. Each theme paragraph of the essay must use one secondary source and one primary source properly contextualized to support your arguments. THESE SOURCES MUST ALL BE PROPERLY QUOTED, CITED, AND VETTED IN YOUR ESSAY.

HOW TO FIND YOUR PRIMARY DOCUMENTS ONLINE – Refer to the Instructions section on How to Find Primary Documents online.

Reviewing the assigned Powerpoint “Vetting Your Sources” will help you find appropriate documents. PLEASE cite these sources according to my instructions. You must also give me a properly formatted Works Cited.

A Student Sample Essay has been provided – “NEXT” below. (This is from a World History Class in a different text so adjust to meet requirements for this class)

A Grading Rubric for the Themed Essays is also provided AFTER the Sample Essay.Link: https://sdsu.instructure.com/courses/69978/assignments/346345


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History Question

I’m working on a history writing question and need support to help me understand better.

I DO NOT have the pdf to send. You will need to look it up.

Assignment: Answer the following prompt in a 2-3 page, double-spaced, 12-point font essay. Organize your essay into clear paragraphs with an introduction, body, and conclusion. This assignment is worth up to 25 points. Due: April 20.

Please keep in mind that this is not a book review. The purpose of the assignment is not to summarize the book. Rather, I am interested in your ability to critically analyze the contents of the book and make connections about the relationship between boxing, race, and American culture.

Prompt:

In Blood Brothers, Randy Roberts and Johnny Smith explore the rise of Cassius Clay and how he became Muhammad Ali. After Clay won the heavyweight championship in 1964, he declared, “I don’t have to be who you want me to be. I’m free to be who I want.” What did Clay mean by this statement? Why was the new heavyweight champion a controversial figure? In your answer, be sure to explain how the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X influenced Cassius Clay’s religious and political views.

Citations:

For quotations and paraphrasing, please cite the pages by using parenthetical references at the end of your sentences. Example: (Roberts and Smith, Blood Brothers, 10).

Guidelines:

  • Your essay must be at least two pages long, but no longer than three pages.
  • Your essay must have a thesis statement. A thesis answers the question as specifically as possible.
  • Your introduction paragraph should provide the necessary and relevant background to lead into your argument.
  • Your essay should follow a logical path and have clear paragraphs with strong topic sentences.
  • Your essay must rely on evidence from the reading and lecture. A good essay offers specific examples to support general points.
  • Use quotes judiciously. Quotations can be effective, but overuse diminishes your authority.
  • Do not write sentences that start with “I” or “This essay will . . .” Instead, write in crisp, formal language.
  • Proofread your work! Read your essay out loud to catch mistakes and polish your language.

Requirements: | .doc file


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History Question

Answer 2 of the following 4 questions with an essay response average of 15-20 sentences for each individual answer. Your answers need to include information ONLY FROM discussed in class lectures and films/videos with Specific Examples provided from lectures.

Can’t have any mistakes, must have good vocabulary, diverse sentence structures, transitions, CORRECT information from given lectures and videos! MLA format

Questions to choose from: Pick any two

  1. According to our World War II lecture, explain when the Holocaust actually began and who implemented it? What tactics were used and how were they implemented (list and explain some of the laws and events)? What was the main purpose of the Holocaust? Who was targeted, and what was the final result?
  2. According to Robert McNamara in the film The Fog of War, what were lessons 4 and 5? How did these lessons relate to how the United States was fighting against the Japanese during World War II? What were the United States’ objectives in the Pacific? How does McNamara infer ideas of ethics or morality in the tactics used by the United States?
  3. According to the film Selma: Bridge to Freedom, what were civil rights activists trying to achieve in Selma, Alabama in 1965? How were they treated by local law enforcement and courthouse officials? What was the purpose of the Freedom March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama? What obstacles did the demonstrators face? What finally resulted in Alabama and the nation in March of 1965?
  4. According to our lecture on the 1960s, who was Ho Chi Minh and what was he trying to do for Vietnam? Why did Minh write eight letters to President Truman the winter of 1945-46? How did Truman respond to Minh and the situation in Vietnam? According to Robert McNamara in the film The Fog of War, why was the United States unable to “empathize” with the North Vietnamese and how did this lead to a war the U.S. could not win?
  5. According to our lecture on Nixon, what does the term “Watergate” refer to historically? How was President Nixon and his White House staff involved (list and explain specific examples from our lecture outline)? What evidence revealed Nixon’s involvement in the scandals? What finally happened to Nixon and his administration?

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History Question

I’m working on a history question and need support to help me learn.

I have a three different tests and you can take each one different times. I can send you all the resources and any tests I’ve done before so you can get some ideas. He will likely ask similar or the same questions as before the tests.

The test will cover your Topic Study Guide Sheets from Topic #3 Question 28 (“Explain the military purpose for the American offensive at Fort Ticonderoga. Explain the roles of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold”) to Topic #8 Question 28 (“Describe reasons for the southern attack on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861”). From our Canvas Home Page, go and click on Quizzes on the left column. You will then see Test #2 broken into three sections: a true-false section (28 points), a multiple choice section (30 points), and a short answer portion with 12 questions (answered in 3-5 sentences) worth three (3) points each for a total of 36 points. Thus, the point value for the Section Two Test is 94 points. It will be your responsibility to complete all three parts of the test by the June 6th deadline. With the end of the semester, no one can receive an extension.

1) The Section Two Test will be available to take online through our Canvas Site from Wednesday June 2nd (at 12:01 AM) to Sunday June 6th (till 11:59 PM). The test will cover your Topic Study Guide Sheets from Topic #3 Question 28 (“Explain the military purpose for the American offensive at Fort Ticonderoga. Explain the roles of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold”) to Topic #8 Question 28 (“Describe reasons for the southern attack on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861”). Within this range, review your study guide questions, online lectures, PowerPoint files, and American Pageant textbook reading.

4) True-False Questions. Select True for true statements or False for false statements. Look for the word or phrase in all caps and bold to determine the truth or falsehood of the statement. If it fits, then the whole statement is true, but if you can picture something else should be in place of the word or phrase in all caps and bold, then it’s a false statement. To record your response, click on the circle to the left of either your True or False Choice. Then click on the Next button to move to the next question. When you completed Question #28, click Submit Quiz to upload all your answers. You have 45 minutes with two attempts to complete 28 responses.

5) Multiple Choice Questions. In this section, mark the letter that BEST answers the question. Look for word(s) in bold to provide hints and focus. Each question has only one correct answer from A to E. Click the circle to the left of the choice you believe is correct and click the Next button to move to the next question. After completing Question #30, click Submit Quiz to upload all your answers. You have 65 minutes with two attempts to complete 30 questions.

6) Short Answer Responses. In the series of short answer questions, answer each question with at least 3-5 solid well-developed sentences to be typed in the text box provided. Each response will be graded on a scale of 0-3 points. Historical accuracy and focus upon the question will maximize your score. The key to preparation is to review your study guide questions. If you remembered from the previous test, every short answer question was written either exactly or a variation to a particular study guide question. So that’s why it’s imperative to have full and complete notes on all your study guide questions for this section. You will be able then to construct effective and accurate short answer responses. Do not use any outside internet sources for these short answer questions. Only use class material from the online lectures, PowerPoint files, and textbook. Any internet material found in your short answers will not be accepted. For the short answer section, you will have 85 minutes with three attempts to complete twelve (12) questions for 36 points.


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History Question

Objective: The goal of this assignment is to familiarize you with how to read and interpret historical documents/visuals as part of the preparation for our first document-based question that is coming up. Reading and interpreting the meaning and significance of historical documents is a skill you must demonstrate to pass this class so let’s practice by analyzing and interpreting the following document titled “The Results of Colonization” by Adam Smith, a Scottish economist and writer, in 1776:

Document:

“The general advantages which Europe, considered as one great country, has derived from the discovery and colonization of America, consist, first, in the increase of its enjoyments; and, secondly, in the augmentation of its industry.

The surplus produce of America, imported into Europe, furnishes the inhabitants of this great continent with a variety of commodities which they could not otherwise have possessed, some for convenience and use, some for pleasure, and some for ornament, and thereby contributes to increase their enjoyments.

The discovery and colonization of America, it will readily be allowed, have contributed to augment the industry, first, of all the countries which trade to it directly; such as Spain, Portugal, France, and England; and, secondly, of all those which, without trading to it directly, send, through the medium of other countries, goods to it of their own produce; such as Austrian Flanders, and some provinces of Germany, which, through the medium of the countries before mentioned, send to it a considerable quantity of linen and other goods. All such countries have evidently gained a more extensive market for their surplus produce, and must consequently have been encouraged to increase its quantity.

The discovery of America, and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind. Their consequences have already been very great: but, in the short period of between two and three centuries which has elapsed since these discoveries were made, it is impossible that the whole extent of their consequences can have been seen. What benefits, or what misfortunes to mankind may hereafter result from those great events, no human wisdom can foresee. By uniting, in some measure, the most distant parts of the world, by enabling them to relieve one another want, to increase one another’s enjoyments, and to encourage one another’s industry, their general tendency would seem to be beneficial.

In the meantime, one of the principal effects of those discoveries has been to raise the mercantile system to a degree of splendor and glory which it could never otherwise have attained to. It is the object of that system to enrich a great nation rather by trade and manufactures than by the improvement and cultivation of land, rather by the industry of the towns than by that of the country. But, in consequence of those discoveries, the commercial towns of Europe, instead of being the manufacturers and carriers for but a very small part of the world (that part of Europe which is washed by the Atlantic ocean, and the countries which lie round the Baltic and Mediterranean seas), have now become the manufacturers for the numerous and thriving cultivators of America, and the carriers, and in some respects the manufacturers too, for almost all the different nations of Asia, Africa, and America. Two new worlds have been opened to their industry, each of them much greater and more extensive than the old one, and the market of one of them growing still greater and greater every day….”

Document title: “The Result of Colonization” by Adam Smith (1776)

Please review the visual image above and provide a written response (short essay format ~ 650-700 word minimum/ word document file format) that answers ALL of the following questions:

  • What is the main point(s) of this document? Summarize in your own words, no quoting
  • According to Adam Smith, how did the “discovery and colonization” of America affect the economic development of Europe?
  • Why did Smith believe that the “benefits” outweigh the “misfortunes?”
  • Who do you think he was referring to by “misfortunes? and why?

PARAPHRASE instead of Quoting: Be sure to paraphrase and not quote from the content. Use “keywords” from the content instead of quoting the entire passage. I am much more interested in reading your summary and interpretation than rereading the document through your submission.

Grading Criteria:

A complete score will demonstrate:

  • CONTEXT: thorough knowledge of what the source is, who produced it, where, when, and why it was produced.
  • CONTENT: sensitive and sophisticated understanding of the meaning of the source in its historical context; appreciation of the complexity or subtlety of the source.
  • CONSEQUENCES: clear grasp of the effect or importance of the source in history.

An incomplete Score:

  • CONTEXT: little or erroneous knowledge of what the source is, who produced it, where, when, and why it was produced; more than two of the above elements incomplete or missing.
  • CONTENT: no understanding of the meaning of the source in its historical context; major points missing or incorrect.
  • CONSEQUENCES: no or erroneous understanding of the effect or importance of the source in history.



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History Question

Research Proposal

The research paper proposal is an opportunity to get feedback on your ideas, sources and structure for your research paper. See the description of the research paper (below) for further guidelines. The paper proposal is a 3 – 4 page document (plus bibliography) that includes:

  • Your draft thesis (argument) and introduction
  • A bullet point outline of your paper
    • What are your main sections?
    • What sources will you use for each part?
    • Approximately how long will each part be?
    • What are the topic sentences/sub-arguments for each section?
  • Problems you expect to encounter (trouble finding sources, too much information, time management) and how you might address them
  • An annotated bibliography of at least 8 sources of which at least 6 must be academic (peer reviewed journal articles, books or book chapters from books published by university presses). The annotation is 2-4 sentences explaining the type of source and what you expect it to contribute to your paper.

You will be evaluated based on the extent to which you meet these criteria. Further details of the assignment will be discussed in class. You will not be held to your outline (ie if your research paper is slightly different this is okay, papers evolve as we work on them), but it is a valuable opportunity to get feedback towards a strong paper.


Research Paper

The research paper is a 10 page (double-spaced 12 pt Times New Roman, excluding reference list/bibliography).

For your research paper you will examine the way in which a particular human rights story, person or event is or is not represented through a monument in the city of Winnipeg.

You have two choices:

  • Choose a monument in the city of Winnipeg and analyze how it represents a human rights story
  • Make a case for the most important human rights monument that Winnipeg is missing (who or what is not represented and should be?)

This is an argument-centred paper – you must present an argument about the representation you are analyzing or proposing (for example its contribution to human rights history, its accuracy or omissions in representation, etc.)

Suggested Structure

  • 1) Introduction: What is the area you will address? What is your argument?
  • 2) Background: What is the topic, event, issue or individual? How is this an important human rights story?
    • Be sure to use academic literature to support and inform your background section
  • 3) Monument Description: How is this issue represented through a monument? (or What is currently missing? How you propose this issue, topic, event or individual be represented?

Tips on describing monuments:

    • Where is it, What is it, When it was made, (for existing monuments – is there any text) ?
    • What does the location, form, size, etc. of the monument suggest about the importance or prominence of this person/issue? If there is more than one person, is there anything suggesting power relationships between them?
    • What is the context of this monument?
    • Who do you think the audience is meant to be?

  • 4) Analysis: How does this monument / proposed monument represent human rights history in Canada?

Key questions:

    • What is the historical event / who is the historical character? (draw on academic literature)
    • How does this person/these events relate to human rights in Canada?
    • What rights are represented directly or indirectly by this monument?
    • Whose story is this monument telling?
    • Whose story is it not telling?

  • 5) Proposed Changes / Contextualization:
    • Text for Plaque: Write a 200 words text in your own words for a plaque to accompany this monument. Your text should reflect your argument. If you are analyzing an existing monument, your monument may or may already have a plaque (in reality), this is your opportunity to present different information.
    • Conclusion: What is the key message of your paper? Are there any next steps you would recommend? (for existing monuments) Are there any barriers to your proposal (for proposed monuments).
    • Papers must include a cover page (title, your name, course number, my name, date submitted), bibliography on a separate page. Use Chicago Manual of Style author-date citations for the research paper and all written assignments in this course. Papers must be typed, double-spaced, with regular margins, use 12-pt. Times New Roman and have numbered pages. Papers should be written in formal academic English (no contractions (ie it’s, isn’t, can’t, don’t)) with attention paid to correct grammar.
    • I WANT THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL WITHIN 23 HOURS OTHERWISE FOR THE FINAL RESEARCH PAPER YOU CAN TAKE 3-4 DAYS!!!!!

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History Question

Deciphering Alexander

In this assignment you will be doing some forensic work! Over the next several pages are three different accounts of Alexander’s death, including who wrote them. Make sure you also watch all the Lectures, especially the Lecture on this assignment which concerns the authors.

The task you have is to write at least a paragraph (5-7 sentences) giving an argument as to what happened leading up to Alexander’s death and explain your reasoning.
Following are three accounts of Alexander’s death from three different authors. A short description of author is provided after each bolded name and then an excerpt from the work. There are several people of interest in these excerpts, and I have provided short descriptions of each person at the end of the respective text in which they first appear.


Arrian, a Greek Historian (c. 86-180 CE)

Roman philosopher, statesman, and historian, Arrian was born in Greece and raised ethnically Greek, but culturally Roman, in the early Roman Empire. Arrian’s account was considered for a long time to be the definitive account of Alexander’s campaign, which is now being challenged by recent scholarship. However, Arrian seems to have had access to the Royal Diary, which kept the notes on Alexander’s day-to-day activities, and still must be taken with a high rate of credibility. Here is his account of the days leading up to the death of Alexander:

[7.24] A few days later (Day 1) Alexander was sitting at dinner with his friends and drinking far into the night. He had previously celebrated the customary sacrificial rites in thanks for his success, adding certain others in obedience to his seers’ advice, and had also, we are told, distributed wine and sacrificial victims among the various units and sections of the army. According to some accounts, when he wished to leave his friends at their drinking and retire to his bedroom, he happened to meet Medius1, who at that time was the companion most closely in his confidence, and Medius asked him to come and continue drinking at his own table, adding that the party would be a merry one.

[Book 7, Chapter 25] The Royal diaries confirm the fact that he drank with Medius after his first carouse (June 2nd). Then [they continue] he left the table, bathed, and went to sleep, after which he supped with Medius and again set to drinking, continuing till late at night (Day 2). Then, once more, he took a bath, ate a little, and went straight to sleep, with the fever already on him. Next day (Day 3) he was carried out on his bed to perform his daily religious duties as usual, and after the ceremony lay in the men’s quarters till dark. He continued to issue orders to his officers, instructing those who were to march by land to be ready to start in three days and those who were going with himself by sea to sail one day later. From there he was carried on his bed to the river, and crossed in a boat to the park on the further side, where he took another bath and rested. Next day (Day 4) he bathed again and offered sacrifice as usual, after which he went to lie down in his room, where he chatted to Medius and gave orders for his officers to report to him early the next morning. Then he took a little food, returned to his room, and lay all night in a fever.

The following morning (Day 5) he bathed and offered sacrifice, and then issued to Nearchus2and the other officers detailed instructions about the voyage, now due to start in two days’ time. Next day (Day 6) he bathed again, went through regular religious duties, and was afterwards in constant fever. None the less he sent for his staff as usual and gave them further instructions on their preparations for sailing. In the evening, after another bath, his condition was grave, and the following morning (Day 7) he was moved to the building near the swimming-pool. He offered sacrifice, and, in spite of his increasing weakness, sent for his senior officers and repeated his orders for the expedition.

The day after that (Day 8) he just managed to have himself carried to his place of prayer, and after the ceremony still continued, in spite of his weakness, to issue instructions to his staff. Another day passed (Day 9). Now very seriously ill, he still refused to neglect his religious duties; he gave orders, however, that his senior officers should wait in the court, and the battalion and company commanders outside his door. Then, his condition already desperate, he was moved from the park back to the palace. He recognized his officers when they entered his room but could no longer speak to them. From that moment until the end he uttered no word. That night and the following day (Day 10), and for the next twenty-four hours (June 11th), he remained in a high fever.

[7.26] The Diaries say that Peitho3, Attalus4, Demophon5, and Peucestas6, together with Cleomenes7, Menidas8, and Seleucus9, spent the night in the temple of Serapis and asked the god if it would be better for Alexander to be carried into the temple itself, in order to pray there and perhaps recover; but the god forbade it, and declared it would be better for him if he stayed where he was. The god’s command was made public, and soon afterwards Alexander died – this, after all being the “better” thing. The accounts of both Ptolemy and Aristobulus10 end at this point. Other writers have added that the high officers most closely in his confidence asked him to name his successor, and that Alexander’s reply was “to the strongest”. There is also a story that he went on to say that he knew very well there would be funeral “games” in good earnest after he was dead.

  1. Medius – Thessalian who was probably with Alexander throughout his campaign. He commanded the Thessalian wing of the cavalry.
  2. Nearchus – The commander of Alexander’s navy.
  3. Peithon – Commander of a phalanx battalion. He may have been with Alexander throughout his campaign, but he is not mentioned until 325 during the India campaign. Peithon later took command of the southeasternmost portion of Alexander’s Empire after his death at the mouth of the Indus River Valley.
  4. Attalus – An officer in Alexander’s army, and likely part of his personal retinue. He was caught up in Philotas’ assassination plot in 330, but was acquitted along with his brothers. He later was left in command in Bactria, along with others, when Alexander took part of the army to march on another area.
  5. Demophon – Alexander’s seer. He prophesied that Alexander should not attack the Mellian city where Alexander received his most severe injury, the arrow through his upper chest and lung.
  6. Peucestas – Was probably with Alexander throughout his campaign. He was awarded with bearing the sacred shield before Alexander during the India campaign, and was one of two men to go over the wall against the Mellians when Alexander was severely wounded. Afterwards Alexander kept him in his personal retinue.
  7. Cleomenes of Naucratis – About 20 miles up the Nile from the Mediterranean, Naucratis was the only permanent Greek colony in Egypt for centuries. Cleomenes was from a prominent house there and was given the task of governing Egypt during the rest of Alexander’s campaign.
  8. Menidas – Commander of the mercenary Greek cavalry in Alexander’s army. He was crucial at the Battle of Gaugamela, he then broke off from Alexander’s army afterwards and spent much time in Bactria. He later rejoined Alexander in Persia.
  9. Seleucus – Rose through the ranks of infantry in Alexander’s army from the beginning of the campaign till he was an infantry commander by the end. Would go on to become the king of the most powerful of the Successor States.
  10. Ptolemy and Aristabolus – Arrian’s main Primary sources for Alexander’s campaign


Plutarch, a Roman Biographer (49-116 CE)

Roman philosopher, biographer, and priest of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Plutarch was, much like Arrian, raised ethnically Greek in a culturally Roman social sphere. He was from a wealthy family, but, unlike Arrian, he was not born a Roman citizen. This made him ineligible to be a politician, which forced him to largely stay out of politics throughout his career. Plutarch, who was a biographer and not a historian, is now mainly known as an author responsible for two works, Lives of the Roman Emperors and The Parallel Lives, this excerpt is from the latter, and arguably more famous, of those two works:

[Chapter 77] And as for suspicions of poisoning, no one had any immediately [following Alexander’s death], but five years afterwards, upon information given, we are told that Olympias1 put many men to death, and scattered abroad the ashes of Iolas2, alleging that he had administered the poison. But those who affirm that Aristotle counselled Antipater to do the deed, and that it was entirely through his agency that the poison was provided, mention one Hagnothemis3 as their authority, who professed to have heard the story from Antigonus4 the king; and the poison was water, icy cold, from a certain cliff in Nonacris; this they gathered up like a delicate dew and stored it in an ass’s hoof; for no other vessel would hold the water, but would all be eaten through by it, owing to its coldness and pungency. Most writers, however, think that the story of the poisoning is altogether a fabrication; and it is no slight evidence in their favor that during the dissensions of Alexander’s commanders, which lasted many days, his body, although it lay without special care in places that were moist and stifling, showed no sign of such a destructive influence, but remained pure and fresh.

  1. Olympias – Alexander’s mother and the first wife of Philip.
  2. Iolas – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Iolas was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Philippus.
  3. Hagnothemis – Though he seems important enough for Plutarch to drop his name, this is the only place we hear of Hagnothemis.
  4. Antigonus – He was a general and counsellor to Alexander’s father Philip, and Antigonus accompanied Alexander till the Battle of Gaugamela, when he was sent back to Anatolia to secure the supply lines from Greece. He successfully rooted out several rebellions and revolts and gained a lot of support in Anatolia over the next several years as Alexander continued east to Bactria and India. He was able to secure this area for decades after Alexander’s death.

Justin, a Roman Historian (c. 2nd century CE)

Justin, the Roman historian, is largely an unknown entity. He was often conflated with Justin Martyr, a contemporary early Christian thinker, which gave him added credibility in the Middle Ages. Essentially, his text follows the work of Pompey Trogue, whose magnum opus — Histories of the Line of Philip and the Origin of the Whole World and the Places of the Earth, which is now lost — was functionally an examination of all the geographical areas and cultures taken over by Alexander. This work excerpted here is essentially nothing more than a summary of that work, likely with his own embellishments:

[Chapter 13] When he was hastening to Babylon, therefore, to hold an assembly, as it were, of the states of the world, one of the Magi warned him “not to enter the city,” for that the “place would be fatal to him.” He accordingly avoided Babylon, and turned aside to Borsippa, a city on the other side of the Euphrates, that had been for some time uninhabited. Here again he was persuaded by Anaxarchus1 the philosopher, to slight the predictions of the Magi as fallacious and uncertain; observing that, “if things were fixed by fate, they were unknown to mortals, and if they were dependent on the course of nature, were unchangeable.” Returning, therefore, to Babylon, and allowing himself several days for rest, he renewed, in his usual manner, the entertainments which had been for some time discontinued, resigning himself wholly to mirth, and joining in his cups the night to the day (Day 1). As he was returning, on one occasion, from a banquet, Medius, a Thessalian, proposing to renew their reveling, invited him and his attendants to his house. Taking up a cup, he suddenly uttered a groan while he was drinking, as if he had been stabbed with a dagger, and being carried half dead from the table, he was excruciated with such torture that he called for a sword to put an end to it, and felt pain at the touch of his attendants as if he were all over wounds. His friends reported that the cause of his disease was excess in drinking, but in reality it was a conspiracy, the infamy of which the power of his successors threw into the shade.

[14] The author of this conspiracy was Antipater. Seeing that his dearest friends were put to death [and] that Alexander Lyncestes2, his son-in-law, was cut off, and that he himself, after his important services in Greece, was not so much liked by the king as envied by him and was also persecuted with various charges by his mother Olympias…,secretly, in order to get close to Alexander, furnished his sons Cassander3, Philippus4 and Iolas5, who were accustomed to attend on the king at table, with poison. The strength of this poison was so great that it could be contained neither in brass, nor iron, nor shell, nor could be conveyed in any other way than in the hoof of a horse. Cassander had been warned to trust nobody but the Thessalian (Medius) and his brothers; and hence it was that the banquet was prepared and renewed in the house of the Thessalian. Philippus and Iolas, who used to taste and mix the king’s drink, had the poison ready in cold water, which they put into the drink after it had been tasted.

[15] On the fourth day [of his illness]…he asked his friends that stood about him, “whether they thought they should find a king like him?” All continuing silent, he said that, “although he did not know that, he knew, and could foretell, and almost saw with his eyes, how much blood Macedonia would shed in the disputes that would follow his death, and with what slaughters, and what quantities of gore, she would perform his obsequies.” At last he ordered his body to be buried in the temple of Jupiter Ammon. When his friends saw him dying, they asked him “whom he would appoint as the successor to his throne?” He replied, “The most worthy.” Such was his nobleness of spirit, that…he named only “the most worthy” as his successor; as though it were unlawful for any but a brave man to succeed a brave man, or for the power of so great an empire to be left to any but approved governors. But as if, by this reply, he had sounded the signal for battle among his friends, or had thrown the apple of discord amongst them, they all rose in emulation against each other, and tried to gain the favor of the army by secretly paying court to the common soldiers. On the sixth day from the commencement of his illness, being unable to speak, he took his ring from his finger, and gave it to Perdiccas6, an act which tranquillized the growing dissension among his friends; for though Perdiccas was not expressly named his successor, he seemed intended to be so in Alexander’s judgment.

  1. Anaxarchus – A philosopher who travelled with Alexander throughout his campaign. He followed the philosophical school of Democritus, who was a pre-Socratic philosopher (ie. he came before Socrates). There are several accounts where he tried to explain to Alexander that he was not, in fact, a god.
  2. Alexander Lyncestes – Was accused, along with his brothers, of the assassination plot on Alexander the Great’s father, Philip. For an unknown reason he was not executed along with his brothers. Afterwards Alexander the Great acquitted him entirely and gave him an office and titles. A few years later he caught corresponding with t he Persian king Darius, in an attempt to possibly assassinate Alexander the Great. He was eventually executed for these crimes after several years of imprisonment.
  3. Cassander – Brother of Iolas and Philippus, and son of Antipater. Cassander was a childhood friend of Alexander, but did not accompany him on his campaign into Persia. He stayed in Macedon with his father throughout the campaign. He rejoined Alexander only shortly before his death in 323, when he was sent by his father, Antipater, to attend Alexander in Babylon.
  4. Philippus – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Philippus was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Iolas.
  5. Iolas – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Iolas was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Philippus.
  6. Perdiccas – Out of all of Alexander’s successors, he seems to have had the best claim to succession since he was given Alexander’s ring right before the king died. Perdiccas, who had been a commander throughout Alexander’s campaign, was given the title of second-in-command upon Hephaestion’s sudden death. He claimed the title of Regent of the Empire when Alexander died, and he quickly gained enemies allying against him. He was killed by his own troops within a few years of Alexander’s death.

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History Question

In the late nineteenth century, the United States showed a heightened interest in establishing an overseas empire. The example of European nations and Japan, which were seizing colonies in Asia and Africa, stimulated this expansionism. As a result, America’s territorial boundaries will extend beyond its borders, and its territory will include colonial possessions.

INSTRUCTIONS:

In order to prepare you must complete the following readings:

  • Review and identify the sections of Chapter 21 that address the topics that are relevant to this essay.
  • Read the linked articles and use at least one of them for your essay to support your discussion:
    1. Henry Cabot Lodge on expansionism
    2. New York Herald Tribune on the War and yellow press
    3. De Lôme Letter transcript
    4. Platt Amendment 1903 transcript
  • Identify and incorporate at least one additional outside source to support your discussion. In addition to the textbook, you may use any material outside of the textbook that is recommended in the Additional Reading section at the end of each chapter. You are also encouraged to do your own research and identify relevant sources. Please keep in mind that WIKIPEDIA is not an acceptable reference.

PREPARE AND SUBMIT:

Write a well-organized essay, a minimum of 700 words (but not limited to), including supporting details from the documents/textbook/other sources, in which you analyze the assigned readings and address the following question:

Discuss the economic, strategic, and ideological factors that contributed to American interest in overseas expansion in the latter part of the nineteenth century, and how the U. S. achieved this expansion. As part of your analysis and discussion identify the arguments of both critics and supporters of imperialism, evaluating, and explaining who had the strongest arguments.


Reminders

  • Use Microsoft WORD to write the essays. The acceptable submission file types are .doc, .docx, and .rtf.
  • Prepare the assignment as a Word Document, double-spaced, and using a standard font of 12 points.
  • Paragraphs in an essay are not numbered. Any questions that are associated with an assigned reading are there to serve as a guide for your discussion.
  • Your discussion should incorporate all of the information from the documents and or textbook, and outside sources as one essay.
  • Students are required to research and incorporate into their discussions additional sources that relate to the content. Recommendations can be found at the end of the textbook chapter in Additional Reading.
  • All statements must be supported and all sources must be identified and cited, and included in your reference list. This also applies to the textbook. Failure to do so constitutes Plagiarism, and the college has strict policies and penalties for failure to comply. Under the Resources, you will find links to sites that review how to format a paper or essay. I recommend that students use APA or Chicago Style to format their essay. Students should ask their instructor which format style they prefer you to use.
  • Proofread your work. Make sure that you have looked for all of the spelling and grammatical errors and corrected them, and that you have organized your work into coherent paragraphs.
  • Submit via the Dropbox as an ATTACHMENT. Any work that is submitted directly into the box will be graded as a 0.

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History Question

Begin this week’s activities by accessing and reading the editorial at the following link:

https://townhall.com/columnists/stephenmoore/2021/07/20/in-bidens-america-everyone-is-entitled-to-everything-n2592775

Dr. Moore closes this essay with the following statement: “the real mystery about this new cradle-to-grave entitlement state is why people still bother to work at all.” Why would he make such a statement? Perhaps it is that in capitalism, people work and provide for themselves the things they desire. In socialism, people work, pay taxes to the government, and government provides those things those in power believe are socially beneficial. The problem is, that if government is providing all of this free stuff to everybody anyway, why bother working to pay taxes? We see “help wanted” signs everywhere these days. There is a shortage of people willing to work because often, unemployment benefits are enough to make working unattractive. Many folks would rather just stay at home and make decent money, than go out and work all day for just a little bit more. Hence, unemployment can be a “disincentive” to work, just like free stuff from the government can be a “disincentive” to work. Remember, what government spends, it must first collect in taxes from workers, if fewer people are working to pay into the coffers, and more people are not working but demanding benefits, then government deficits must grow. The federal government’s debt, according to the “Debt Clock” of the Peterson Foundation, today is slightly over $28.5 Trillion, that’s roughly $86,346 for every man, woman, and child in this country.

The issue I’d like you to think about is this: can the Biden administration continue to spend money at this pace, discouraging people from working and paying taxes, putting money on a credit card in your name which already has an $86K balance, and not expect things to implode? It was legendary British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher who once said, “Socialism is great until you run out of other people’s money.” Government has already taxed the people as much as they’ll allow, so now they just borrow money and put it on the people’s tab….can this continue for much longer?

Compose and upload by Saturday night of Week Two an original post of 350-500 words which summarizes your response to the economic situation we face in this country. Consider the issues outlined above and determine whether you trust the government to make wise decisions and manage the economy well, or are you skeptical given the track-record of politicians up to now. By the end of Week Two, on Tuesday night, compose a “substantive” response to a peer’s essay. If you trust the government, then respond to a peer who does not; if you don’t trust the government, then choose a peer who does. The point of these responses is to learn from each other, and choosing a peer with whom you disagree in whole or in part, then respectfully challenging those positions is a great way to expand beyond the unthinking narratives many of you were indoctrinated with earlier in your educational career. I want you to know what you believe, why you believe it, and be able to defend your positions. This is the difference between “education” and “indoctrination.” You will never be punished for expressing an opinion you think I might disagree with; just show me original thought and sincere belief in your positions. Harken back to your score on the World’s Smallest Political Quiz and judge whether your opinions in this essay are consistent with your overall political ideology.

One of my favorite quotes is from the Greek philosopher Plato. He wrote over 2000 years ago, “the unexamined life is not worth living.” Use this forum, and this course, to examine your own life and determine who you are and what you believe. My job is not to tell you what to believe, but to challenge you to determine these important issues for yourselves.


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History Question

Historical Project: Choose a North Carolina historical site (state or federal site, museum exhibit, interpretive center, etc.) to visit online (via the official website) and relate its significance to NC history (excluding the Biltmore Estate and the Museum of the Cherokee Indian [also, do not choose prehistoric sites or cultural sites]). No markers, monuments, or statues). YOUR TOPIC/WEBSITE MUST BE APPROVED BY ME and submitted in the assignment dropbox in Module 3. Projects must be three (3) full pages, and not over four (4) pages, (not counting the title/cover page or Works Cited/Bibliography page), 12-point standard font, double-spaced with standard margins. A critical analysis of your website must be included. Your sources should include at least one primary source (first-hand testimony or direct evidence created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the documented event—can include autobiographies, letters, memoirs, and also oral histories later created) and four secondary sources (creator/author did not experience the event first-hand—includes most books written on the topic years later). No late submissions allowed. These projects are worth 300 points and must include:1) Title of Project, Author’s Name, HIST 341-01, and Date. This is not part of the paper’s page requirement. 2) Include introduction, main body of text, and conclusion in a narrative format (NO HEADINGS OR subtitles. NO QUOTES!!!!!). BE SURE to PLACE the site into historical context.a. Answer how this site shaped North Carolina’s history. Stay within the context of the time. AVOID “what if” history (ie. If we didn’t win the battle, we wouldn’t be the great nation we are today.” Instead, focus on what were the direct or indirect consequences of the event at the time.2) Include in narrative format (use NO subtitle headings) an introduction, main body of text (include your outside research, detailed description of how the website presents its interpretation, critical analysis of the site’s historical interpretation, and conclusion. YOU MUST USE PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES (MLA) OR FOOTNOTES (Chicago-style) CITING YOUR SOURCES IN THE TEXT OF YOUR PAPER. USE NO QUOTES. Instead, paraphrase your research in your own words, while still citing your source. Use footnotes (Chicago style) ONLY if you are a history major or minor. If you are not sure how to do either, there are wonderful web sources that you can access https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/. 3) BE SURE to PLACE the site in its historic context.a. Consider how this site’s event/person significantly shaped the history of North Carolina.b. FIRST, provide a well-researched background history about the site/event/person using your outside research sources. c. Second, describe the history presented by the official website for the historic site. Ask yourself: What categories does it take the visitor through? Include how the site addresses any race, gender, class, or community issues at the time of the event or during the time of its historic importance concerning the history of your topic/place if applicable.d. Third, how and when did the site become a preserved site or public history site? What person(s) or group(s) was/were instrumental in making this happen?e. Fourth, conclude with a critical analysis of the official website’s interpretation of its history to viewers. Does it inadequately cover or ignore important parts of the history? Does it include all perspectives of those involved? What could it do better, especially covering issues of race, gender, class, or community in regard to your specific chosen topic/place?

3f. If you choose to, include a PowerPoint Presentation; you should then turn in ONLY a 3-page paper (full 3 pages). The PP should follow along and enhance your paper, not merely reiterate the same material. Avoid lots of text; instead, use maps, photos, graphs, etc. OR add information that your chosen official website did not cover that it should have. How long? Enough to cover the topic adequately. DO NOT EMBED PHOTOS into the text of your paper; instead, use a PP.4) Works Cited page (MLA) or Bibliography (Chicago style) (not in page count): You must use at least one primary source and four secondary sources. To avoid point deductions, do not use Wikipedia or other such online sources like encyclopedias. Use books, journal articles, academic articles. You MUST format this using either MLA for your Works Cited OR Chicago Manual of Style for the Bibliography. If you are not sure how to do this, refer to https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/. Within the text of your paper, you MUST use parenthetical reference (MLA) if you are not a history major (THIS MEANS IN-TEXT CITATIONS), OR Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style for footnote citations (if a history major or minor). If you are not sure how to do either, there are wonderful web-sources that you can access. I recommend: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/ Do not wait until a week before this is due or you will have trouble. Remember: Plagiarism or academic dishonesty will get you an automatic F. If you do not understand what this is, contact me. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE, even if you list the source. YOU NEED TO WRITE THIS.


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History Question

I need help with a History question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Deciphering Alexander

In this assignment you will be doing some forensic work! Over the next several pages are three different accounts of Alexander’s death, including who wrote them. Make sure you also watch all the Lectures, especially the Lecture on this assignment which concerns the authors.

The task you have is to write at least a paragraph (5-7 sentences) giving an argument as to what happened leading up to Alexander’s death and explain your reasoning.

Following are three accounts of Alexander’s death from three different authors. A short description of author is provided after each bolded name and then an excerpt from the work. There are several people of interest in these excerpts, and I have provided short descriptions of each person at the end of the respective text in which they first appear.

Arrian, a Greek Historian (c. 86-180 CE)

Roman philosopher, statesman, and historian, Arrian was born in Greece and raised ethnically Greek, but culturally Roman, in the early Roman Empire. Arrian’s account was considered for a long time to be the definitive account of Alexander’s campaign, which is now being challenged by recent scholarship. However, Arrian seems to have had access to the Royal Diary, which kept the notes on Alexander’s day-to-day activities, and still must be taken with a high rate of credibility. Here is his account of the days leading up to the death of Alexander:

[7.24] A few days later (Day 1) Alexander was sitting at dinner with his friends and drinking far into the night. He had previously celebrated the customary sacrificial rites in thanks for his success, adding certain others in obedience to his seers’ advice, and had also, we are told, distributed wine and sacrificial victims among the various units and sections of the army. According to some accounts, when he wished to leave his friends at their drinking and retire to his bedroom, he happened to meet Medius1, who at that time was the companion most closely in his confidence, and Medius asked him to come and continue drinking at his own table, adding that the party would be a merry one.

[Book 7, Chapter 25] The Royal diaries confirm the fact that he drank with Medius after his first carouse (June 2nd). Then [they continue] he left the table, bathed, and went to sleep, after which he supped with Medius and again set to drinking, continuing till late at night (Day 2). Then, once more, he took a bath, ate a little, and went straight to sleep, with the fever already on him. Next day (Day 3) he was carried out on his bed to perform his daily religious duties as usual, and after the ceremony lay in the men’s quarters till dark. He continued to issue orders to his officers, instructing those who were to march by land to be ready to start in three days and those who were going with himself by sea to sail one day later. From there he was carried on his bed to the river, and crossed in a boat to the park on the further side, where he took another bath and rested. Next day (Day 4) he bathed again and offered sacrifice as usual, after which he went to lie down in his room, where he chatted to Medius and gave orders for his officers to report to him early the next morning. Then he took a little food, returned to his room, and lay all night in a fever.

The following morning (Day 5) he bathed and offered sacrifice, and then issued to Nearchus2and the other officers detailed instructions about the voyage, now due to start in two days’ time. Next day (Day 6) he bathed again, went through regular religious duties, and was afterwards in constant fever. None the less he sent for his staff as usual and gave them further instructions on their preparations for sailing. In the evening, after another bath, his condition was grave, and the following morning (Day 7) he was moved to the building near the swimming-pool. He offered sacrifice, and, in spite of his increasing weakness, sent for his senior officers and repeated his orders for the expedition.

The day after that (Day 8) he just managed to have himself carried to his place of prayer, and after the ceremony still continued, in spite of his weakness, to issue instructions to his staff. Another day passed (Day 9). Now very seriously ill, he still refused to neglect his religious duties; he gave orders, however, that his senior officers should wait in the court, and the battalion and company commanders outside his door. Then, his condition already desperate, he was moved from the park back to the palace. He recognized his officers when they entered his room but could no longer speak to them. From that moment until the end he uttered no word. That night and the following day (Day 10), and for the next twenty-four hours (June 11th), he remained in a high fever.

[7.26] The Diaries say that Peitho3, Attalus4, Demophon5, and Peucestas6, together with Cleomenes7, Menidas8, and Seleucus9, spent the night in the temple of Serapis and asked the god if it would be better for Alexander to be carried into the temple itself, in order to pray there and perhaps recover; but the god forbade it, and declared it would be better for him if he stayed where he was. The god’s command was made public, and soon afterwards Alexander died – this, after all being the “better” thing. The accounts of both Ptolemy and Aristobulus10 end at this point. Other writers have added that the high officers most closely in his confidence asked him to name his successor, and that Alexander’s reply was “to the strongest”. There is also a story that he went on to say that he knew very well there would be funeral “games” in good earnest after he was dead.

  1. Medius – Thessalian who was probably with Alexander throughout his campaign. He commanded the Thessalian wing of the cavalry.
  2. Nearchus – The commander of Alexander’s navy.
  3. Peithon – Commander of a phalanx battalion. He may have been with Alexander throughout his campaign, but he is not mentioned until 325 during the India campaign. Peithon later took command of the southeasternmost portion of Alexander’s Empire after his death at the mouth of the Indus River Valley.
  4. Attalus – An officer in Alexander’s army, and likely part of his personal retinue. He was caught up in Philotas’ assassination plot in 330, but was acquitted along with his brothers. He later was left in command in Bactria, along with others, when Alexander took part of the army to march on another area.
  5. Demophon – Alexander’s seer. He prophesied that Alexander should not attack the Mellian city where Alexander received his most severe injury, the arrow through his upper chest and lung.
  6. Peucestas – Was probably with Alexander throughout his campaign. He was awarded with bearing the sacred shield before Alexander during the India campaign, and was one of two men to go over the wall against the Mellians when Alexander was severely wounded. Afterwards Alexander kept him in his personal retinue.
  7. Cleomenes of Naucratis – About 20 miles up the Nile from the Mediterranean, Naucratis was the only permanent Greek colony in Egypt for centuries. Cleomenes was from a prominent house there and was given the task of governing Egypt during the rest of Alexander’s campaign.
  8. Menidas – Commander of the mercenary Greek cavalry in Alexander’s army. He was crucial at the Battle of Gaugamela, he then broke off from Alexander’s army afterwards and spent much time in Bactria. He later rejoined Alexander in Persia.
  9. Seleucus – Rose through the ranks of infantry in Alexander’s army from the beginning of the campaign till he was an infantry commander by the end. Would go on to become the king of the most powerful of the Successor States.
  10. Ptolemy and Aristabolus – Arrian’s main Primary sources for Alexander’s campaign.

Plutarch, a Roman Biographer (49-116 CE)

Roman philosopher, biographer, and priest of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Plutarch was, much like Arrian, raised ethnically Greek in a culturally Roman social sphere. He was from a wealthy family, but, unlike Arrian, he was not born a Roman citizen. This made him ineligible to be a politician, which forced him to largely stay out of politics throughout his career. Plutarch, who was a biographer and not a historian, is now mainly known as an author responsible for two works, Lives of the Roman Emperors and The Parallel Lives, this excerpt is from the latter, and arguably more famous, of those two works:

[Chapter 77] And as for suspicions of poisoning, no one had any immediately [following Alexander’s death], but five years afterwards, upon information given, we are told that Olympias1 put many men to death, and scattered abroad the ashes of Iolas2, alleging that he had administered the poison. But those who affirm that Aristotle counselled Antipater to do the deed, and that it was entirely through his agency that the poison was provided, mention one Hagnothemis3 as their authority, who professed to have heard the story from Antigonus4 the king; and the poison was water, icy cold, from a certain cliff in Nonacris; this they gathered up like a delicate dew and stored it in an ass’s hoof; for no other vessel would hold the water, but would all be eaten through by it, owing to its coldness and pungency. Most writers, however, think that the story of the poisoning is altogether a fabrication; and it is no slight evidence in their favor that during the dissensions of Alexander’s commanders, which lasted many days, his body, although it lay without special care in places that were moist and stifling, showed no sign of such a destructive influence, but remained pure and fresh.

  1. Olympias – Alexander’s mother and the first wife of Philip.
  2. Iolas – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Iolas was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Philippus.
  3. Hagnothemis – Though he seems important enough for Plutarch to drop his name, this is the only place we hear of Hagnothemis.
  4. Antigonus – He was a general and counsellor to Alexander’s father Philip, and Antigonus accompanied Alexander till the Battle of Gaugamela, when he was sent back to Anatolia to secure the supply lines from Greece. He successfully rooted out several rebellions and revolts and gained a lot of support in Anatolia over the next several years as Alexander continued east to Bactria and India. He was able to secure this area for decades after Alexander’s death.

Justin, a Roman Historian (c. 2nd century CE)

Justin, the Roman historian, is largely an unknown entity. He was often conflated with Justin Martyr, a contemporary early Christian thinker, which gave him added credibility in the Middle Ages. Essentially, his text follows the work of Pompey Trogue, whose magnum opus — Histories of the Line of Philip and the Origin of the Whole World and the Places of the Earth, which is now lost — was functionally an examination of all the geographical areas and cultures taken over by Alexander. This work excerpted here is essentially nothing more than a summary of that work, likely with his own embellishments:

[Chapter 13] When he was hastening to Babylon, therefore, to hold an assembly, as it were, of the states of the world, one of the Magi warned him “not to enter the city,” for that the “place would be fatal to him.” He accordingly avoided Babylon, and turned aside to Borsippa, a city on the other side of the Euphrates, that had been for some time uninhabited. Here again he was persuaded by Anaxarchus1 the philosopher, to slight the predictions of the Magi as fallacious and uncertain; observing that, “if things were fixed by fate, they were unknown to mortals, and if they were dependent on the course of nature, were unchangeable.” Returning, therefore, to Babylon, and allowing himself several days for rest, he renewed, in his usual manner, the entertainments which had been for some time discontinued, resigning himself wholly to mirth, and joining in his cups the night to the day (Day 1). As he was returning, on one occasion, from a banquet, Medius, a Thessalian, proposing to renew their reveling, invited him and his attendants to his house. Taking up a cup, he suddenly uttered a groan while he was drinking, as if he had been stabbed with a dagger, and being carried half dead from the table, he was excruciated with such torture that he called for a sword to put an end to it, and felt pain at the touch of his attendants as if he were all over wounds. His friends reported that the cause of his disease was excess in drinking, but in reality it was a conspiracy, the infamy of which the power of his successors threw into the shade.

[14] The author of this conspiracy was Antipater. Seeing that his dearest friends were put to death [and] that Alexander Lyncestes2, his son-in-law, was cut off, and that he himself, after his important services in Greece, was not so much liked by the king as envied by him and was also persecuted with various charges by his mother Olympias…,secretly, in order to get close to Alexander, furnished his sons Cassander3, Philippus4 and Iolas5, who were accustomed to attend on the king at table, with poison. The strength of this poison was so great that it could be contained neither in brass, nor iron, nor shell, nor could be conveyed in any other way than in the hoof of a horse. Cassander had been warned to trust nobody but the Thessalian (Medius) and his brothers; and hence it was that the banquet was prepared and renewed in the house of the Thessalian. Philippus and Iolas, who used to taste and mix the king’s drink, had the poison ready in cold water, which they put into the drink after it had been tasted.

[15] On the fourth day [of his illness]…he asked his friends that stood about him, “whether they thought they should find a king like him?” All continuing silent, he said that, “although he did not know that, he knew, and could foretell, and almost saw with his eyes, how much blood Macedonia would shed in the disputes that would follow his death, and with what slaughters, and what quantities of gore, she would perform his obsequies.” At last he ordered his body to be buried in the temple of Jupiter Ammon. When his friends saw him dying, they asked him “whom he would appoint as the successor to his throne?” He replied, “The most worthy.” Such was his nobleness of spirit, that…he named only “the most worthy” as his successor; as though it were unlawful for any but a brave man to succeed a brave man, or for the power of so great an empire to be left to any but approved governors. But as if, by this reply, he had sounded the signal for battle among his friends, or had thrown the apple of discord amongst them, they all rose in emulation against each other, and tried to gain the favor of the army by secretly paying court to the common soldiers. On the sixth day from the commencement of his illness, being unable to speak, he took his ring from his finger, and gave it to Perdiccas6, an act which tranquillized the growing dissension among his friends; for though Perdiccas was not expressly named his successor, he seemed intended to be so in Alexander’s judgment.

  1. Anaxarchus – A philosopher who travelled with Alexander throughout his campaign. He followed the philosophical school of Democritus, who was a pre-Socratic philosopher (ie. he came before Socrates). There are several accounts where he tried to explain to Alexander that he was not, in fact, a god.
  2. Alexander Lyncestes – Was accused, along with his brothers, of the assassination plot on Alexander the Great’s father, Philip. For an unknown reason he was not executed along with his brothers. Afterwards Alexander the Great acquitted him entirely and gave him an office and titles. A few years later he caught corresponding with t he Persian king Darius, in an attempt to possibly assassinate Alexander the Great. He was eventually executed for these crimes after several years of imprisonment.
  3. Cassander – Brother of Iolas and Philippus, and son of Antipater. Cassander was a childhood friend of Alexander, but did not accompany him on his campaign into Persia. He stayed in Macedon with his father throughout the campaign. He rejoined Alexander only shortly before his death in 323, when he was sent by his father, Antipater, to attend Alexander in Babylon.
  4. Philippus – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Philippus was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Iolas.
  5. Iolas – Brother of Cassander and son of Antipater. Antipater was the governor who Alexander left in control of Macedon and Greece when he set out on his campaign into Persia. Iolas was Alexander’s cupbearer along with his brother, Philippus.
  6. Perdiccas – Out of all of Alexander’s successors, he seems to have had the best claim to succession since he was given Alexander’s ring right before the king died. Perdiccas, who had been a commander throughout Alexander’s campaign, was given the title of second-in-command upon Hephaestion’s sudden death. He claimed the title of Regent of the Empire when Alexander died, and he quickly gained enemies allying against him. He was killed by his own troops within a few years of Alexander’s death.

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History Question

  1. Please write a four to five-page, typed, double-spaced, Times New Roman font, size 12, and with one-inch margin paper on the novel, Always Running.
  2. Be sure your name, section number, TA and paper title appears on the first page.
  3. Now that you’ve received feedback on the first two pages of your rough draft from your TA, you must address any issues and revise your draft accordingly. Remember, TAs have access to previous comments made on Canvas and will know if you did not make any changes. Failure to edit your paper, will affect your overall grade.
  4. Be sure to number your pages at the bottom, right hand corner.
  5. Do not use outside sources.
  6. Every paragraph, with the exception of the introduction and conclusion, should have one quotation or citation from novel to support your argument: (Rodríguez, 23).
  7. Be careful not to overquote, limit one or two short quotes per paragraph. You will be penalized for having too many quotes. Nobody wants to read a paper full of quotes.
  8. In the conclusion, you can voice your own opinion about the novel and use “I” statements.
  9. Have a topic sentence for every paragraph. A topic sentence informs the reader what you will be addressing in the paragraph.
  10. Please submit paper on Canvas. Please submit a couple hours in advance in case you have technical or wireless issues

Use Following Text:

Luis Rodriguez, Always Running: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A. (East Haven, CT: Curbstone Press, 1993)

Citations:

Please make sure to properly cite sources using MLA style. For example: (Rodríguez, 55). Also, place quotation marks when using direct wording from book. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Each paragraph must have at least one citation, with the exception of the introduction and conclusion.

Essay Prompt:

In his memoir, Luis Rodríguez walks us through his life from childhood through young adulthood. The harsh realities around him shape his world view:

“By the time I turned 18 years old, 25 of my friends had been killed by rival gangs, police, drugs, car crashes and suicides.” (Rodríguez, 4).

Rodríguez sees himself as “lucky” because he was able to escape death, prison, or a crime driven existence. He, unlike many of his peers, was able to get out—to escape.

Young men, especially young men of color, in impoverished neighbors are often lured into gang life. For some, partaking in gang activities is not an option—often times they are forced to and failing to do so could result in a beating or death. There are few alternatives or positive outlets for them and consequently gangs gain the upper hand.

According to Rodríguez, who is ultimately to blame for his involvement in gangs and who/what does he credit for “saving” him from gangs? Why are gangs so appealing to some?


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History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


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History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


Order the answer to view it

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Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


Order the answer to view it

Assignment Solutions


Assignment Solutions

ORDER THIS OR A SIMILAR PAPER AND GET 20% DICOUNT. USE CODE: GET2O

Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


Order the answer to view it

Assignment Solutions


Assignment Solutions

ORDER THIS OR A SIMILAR PAPER AND GET 20% DICOUNT. USE CODE: GET2O

Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


Order the answer to view it

Assignment Solutions


Assignment Solutions

ORDER THIS OR A SIMILAR PAPER AND GET 20% DICOUNT. USE CODE: GET2O

Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Your paper should start with a thesis statement

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent ( cause and effect) that had short and long term consequences U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either. Below are topics you can choose from and do your own research.

Sun Tzu advised strategists to “know your enemy and know yourself.”

The Militia System

The Colonial Wars and struggles between empires

The American Revolution and the Early Republic

Conflict with Native-Americans

The Quasi War

The Barbary Coast / Tripolitan Wars

The War of 1812

Jomini and Clausewitz , and SunTzu ( Chinese Philosopher)

Founding of the Academics and the emerging officer professionalism

Indian Wars and Frontier expansion ( Native relocations)

The Mexican War ( Manifest Destiny)

The Civil War ( Military tactics , strategies, leadership , organization and total war )

Post war demobilization ( Reconstruction , constabulary duty, and labor unrest )

Birth of the modern military

The Spanish American War ( The Splendid Little War )

The Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion & U.S. Intervention into Mexico

The War to End all Wars (The First World War)

Revolution Military Affairs (RMA)

The American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

“To know war is not to advocate war”

The League of Nation

Russian Bolshevism ( Vladimir I.Lenin)

  1. S. Intervention into Russian Civil War

Demobilization, Diplomacy, and Disarmament

The Interwar Years and Military Policy between the Two Wars

Prelude to World War II ( The Policy of Appeasement)

Blitzkrieg East and West

The European Theater and Pacific Theater

Naval and air power

Demobilization and Inter-service rivalries

National Security Act of 1947

The Cold War , The Policy of Containment The Berlin Confrontation and the creation of NATO, The Loss of China and Korea Conflict

The French Indo China War (1945-1954) Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh

The experiment in Nation Building, South Vietnam ( 1954-1964)

Into the Quagmire (1964-1975) Post Vietnam Challenges

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The First Gulf War, (Desert Shield -Desert Storm ,1991

Operations Other Than War (Somalia and the retreat from Mogadishu 1993)

The Second Gulf War and Post Saddam Hussein

Iraq and Afghanistan (Has the nature of warfare changed?)

Challenges for the 21st century : Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda, Taliban , and God’s Warriors….

War on Terrorism


Order the answer to view it

Assignment Solutions


Assignment Solutions

ORDER THIS OR A SIMILAR PAPER AND GET 20% DICOUNT. USE CODE: GET2O

Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

Research Assignment 3

To this point, you have identified a contemporary issue of interest and have begun to define the geographic and chronological parameters of a historical investigation into the issue’s origins (research assignment #1) and identified relevant secondary literature on your topic (research assignment #2).

In research assignment #3, you’re going to locate at least one historical primary source created before 1980. Click here for a definition of a primary source and here for examples of kinds of primary sources.

Step 1. Develop 1-2 date limiters for your primary source search. Go back to the Wikipedia article you used in RA1 and identify some important dates. You might, for example, choose a range of years around a country’s independence. If you’re not sure, start with a wide range, and then narrow it down. Add the date range that ultimately worked to the end of your project.

Step 2. Try multiple combinations of your search terms. Do not simply select the source at the top of the search results, and be sure to try at least two databases – find a source that will help you answer the research question from RA2. Analyze the source.

Some places you might look for primary sources:

HathiTrust (preserves published materials from a variety of libraries around the United States. It has especially strong collections in books and journals from the 19th and early 20th centuries).

Google Books (part of Google’s quest to own all information, Google Books is an initiative to digitalize nearly everything ever published. Out-of-copyright books are fully searchable).

Cold War International History Project (a project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center of Scholars to document every side of the Cold War).

Avalon Project (prominent legal documents, including treaties, constitutions, colonial charters).

Internet Archive (this one is tricky as it contains lots of non-historical stuff, but occasionally turns up some great primary sources – depending on the topic).

The United Nations document section contains historical and contemporary UN documents related to international topics.

H. M. Stationery Service has United Kingdom government documents dating back to the 13th century; be sure to use “advanced search” so you can restrict your exploration to pre-1980 items.

JSTOR (Journal Storage – contains mostly scholarly journal articles that, if published during the time period, could serve as primary evidence. Be sure to use your date limiter).

JU’s library catalog (find historical primary sources with a search like this: your topic AND (diar* OR letter* OR interview* OR speech*).

Wikisource (part of the Wikimedia empire, Wikisource has good resources for some topics, but like Wikipedia depends on someone with interest providing them).

Internet History Sourcebook (created by Fordham University, this has a number of excerpts of longer primary sources)

Step 3. Write one analytical paragraph (similar to what you did for research assignment #1) that considers the following questions:

What kind of primary source is it?

Who is the intended audience?

What is the purpose of the source?

What is the historical context in which the source was written and read?

How might the author’s gender, race, or socioeconomic class compare to those of the people about whom he or she is writing?

What unspoken assumptions does the source contain?

Do NOT answer the above questions in list format. Instead, integrate the answers into a clear analytical narrative of the source. Make sure that you address every question.

Step 4. Cite your primary source using an endnote citation. Depending on the type of source that it is (newspaper article, book, speech) the formatting will be different. If you’re not sure how to cite it, consult the Chicago Style Quick Guide, or better yet see a librarian or Dr. Unangst during office hours. We can help!

Step 5. Research Question to Hypothesis / Thesis Statement. Go back to your revised research question from RA2 (or, if you changed your topic, be sure to clearly explain). Next, in light of your integrated analysis of collected sources to this point, and comments from Dr. Unangst provided in RA1 and RA2, type an initial hypothesis/thesis statement. A thesis statement is an answer to your research question. Remember when you craft your thesis statement that it should: (1) relate back directly to and clearly, fully answer your final, refined research question (from RA2), and (2) you should be able to demonstrate your thesis through a study of the history of your issue. Also, for information on how to write a thesis and key examples, see this guide. Make sure your thesis meets all of the criteria on the A(H) SMART thesis checklist in the history research project folder. I’ve attached RA1. I didn’t submit RA2 so whatever info is needed from RA2, YOU CAN assume that. Make it around 1 page

Your submission should thus include the following elements:

A. Your analytical paragraph

B. Primary source citation

C. Provisional thesis statement


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History Question

1.This due in 2 days (Only need 5 sentences)What do you think about life in California during the 1930s? What were the effects of the Great Depression? Was there a lighter side to this period as well? Did people give up to dispair or did they continue following their dreams? For your answer to these questions, write a five sentence response. After you have completed this task, you are to reply to two classmates, writing a four sentence paragraph for each reply.

2. This due in 2 days(Only need 1 page)For this assignment, you are to type a one page, double spaced essay using the lectures, videos, and documents presented this week to answer a historical question. Interpreting all the materials you have seen, what was the experience of Californians during the Great Depression? Was it a time of immense suffering? Were there moments of hope? How did Californians manage to get through this dark chapter in U.S. History?

3(This DUE November 5th).In this assignment, you will analyze both primary and secondary sources to present a historical argument. You must present your own interpretation of what you see in the documents. Narrative style book reports are unacceptable and will result in a C or less. Remember to present your thesis at the beginning of your paper, clearly stating point by point what you will be arguing. The paragraphs that follow should support your argument with a strong introductory sentence. At the end of your paper, you will return to your thesis, and bring your argument to a successful conclusion.

Your second paper will be 5-7 pages in length, typed and double spaced in a 12 point font with footnotes and bibliography made according to the Chicago Manual of Style, and presented with standard one inch margins. For your sources, you must use a minimum of five scholarly sources that are either books or articles. These can be accessed digitally through the university library. With the exception of articles I have linked to Blackboard, you may not use any other outside websites. In addition, title pages and the bibliography also do not count towards the minimum page length requirement for the essay. Only in extreme circumstances will late papers be accepted without penalty, and only if I receive notification by email a day before the paper is due.

For your second paper, you will write an essay on your choice of topic from weeks 7 to 12, ranging from the Progressive Era up through the Post War Era. When analyzing your choice of subject, think about what makes it unique. What is your argument? How did your topic impact California?


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Posted in Uncategorized

History Question

Research Assignment 3

To this point, you have identified a contemporary issue of interest and have begun to define the geographic and chronological parameters of a historical investigation into the issue’s origins (research assignment #1) and identified relevant secondary literature on your topic (research assignment #2).

In research assignment #3, you’re going to locate at least one historical primary source created before 1980. Click here for a definition of a primary source and here for examples of kinds of primary sources.

Step 1. Develop 1-2 date limiters for your primary source search. Go back to the Wikipedia article you used in RA1 and identify some important dates. You might, for example, choose a range of years around a country’s independence. If you’re not sure, start with a wide range, and then narrow it down. Add the date range that ultimately worked to the end of your project.

Step 2. Try multiple combinations of your search terms. Do not simply select the source at the top of the search results, and be sure to try at least two databases – find a source that will help you answer the research question from RA2. Analyze the source.

Some places you might look for primary sources:

HathiTrust (preserves published materials from a variety of libraries around the United States. It has especially strong collections in books and journals from the 19th and early 20th centuries).

Google Books (part of Google’s quest to own all information, Google Books is an initiative to digitalize nearly everything ever published. Out-of-copyright books are fully searchable).

Cold War International History Project (a project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center of Scholars to document every side of the Cold War).

Avalon Project (prominent legal documents, including treaties, constitutions, colonial charters).

Internet Archive (this one is tricky as it contains lots of non-historical stuff, but occasionally turns up some great primary sources – depending on the topic).

The United Nations document section contains historical and contemporary UN documents related to international topics.

H. M. Stationery Service has United Kingdom government documents dating back to the 13th century; be sure to use “advanced search” so you can restrict your exploration to pre-1980 items.

JSTOR (Journal Storage – contains mostly scholarly journal articles that, if published during the time period, could serve as primary evidence. Be sure to use your date limiter).

JU’s library catalog (find historical primary sources with a search like this: your topic AND (diar* OR letter* OR interview* OR speech*).

Wikisource (part of the Wikimedia empire, Wikisource has good resources for some topics, but like Wikipedia depends on someone with interest providing them).

Internet History Sourcebook (created by Fordham University, this has a number of excerpts of longer primary sources)

Step 3. Write one analytical paragraph (similar to what you did for research assignment #1) that considers the following questions:

What kind of primary source is it?

Who is the intended audience?

What is the purpose of the source?

What is the historical context in which the source was written and read?

How might the author’s gender, race, or socioeconomic class compare to those of the people about whom he or she is writing?

What unspoken assumptions does the source contain?

Do NOT answer the above questions in list format. Instead, integrate the answers into a clear analytical narrative of the source. Make sure that you address every question.

Step 4. Cite your primary source using an endnote citation. Depending on the type of source that it is (newspaper article, book, speech) the formatting will be different. If you’re not sure how to cite it, consult the Chicago Style Quick Guide, or better yet see a librarian or Dr. Unangst during office hours. We can help!

Step 5. Research Question to Hypothesis / Thesis Statement. Go back to your revised research question from RA2 (or, if you changed your topic, be sure to clearly explain). Next, in light of your integrated analysis of collected sources to this point, and comments from Dr. Unangst provided in RA1 and RA2, type an initial hypothesis/thesis statement. A thesis statement is an answer to your research question. Remember when you craft your thesis statement that it should: (1) relate back directly to and clearly, fully answer your final, refined research question (from RA2), and (2) you should be able to demonstrate your thesis through a study of the history of your issue. Also, for information on how to write a thesis and key examples, see this guide. Make sure your thesis meets all of the criteria on the A(H) SMART thesis checklist in the history research project folder. I’ve attached RA1. I didn’t submit RA2 so whatever info is needed from RA2, YOU CAN assume that. I don’t think it will be that long.

Your submission should thus include the following elements:

A. Your analytical paragraph

B. Primary source citation

C. Provisional thesis statement


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History Question

Please answer in complete sentences. Please remember to include specific examples from the class in your responses.

I expect that short answer responses should be approximately one-to-two paragraphs each. The essay response likely should be completed in at minimum of four-to-five paragraphs.

Please answer the questions as written. You do not need to include a formal introduction or conclusion in your essay response.

Short answer

1. Why did Martin Luther King, Jr. oppose the Vietnam War? In his 1967 speech, how does he outline the relationship between the fight for racial justice and the war in Vietnam? In your response, please describe at least two examples from his speech that identify why he opposes the war on racial justice grounds.

2. Please answer EITHER question C or question D.

C. How did US foreign policy shift from the 1970s to the 1980s: what are the main principles that defined foreign policy in the 1970s and how was the Reagan Doctrine different? In your response, please provide at minimum of one example of each approach to foreign policy in action and explain how it exemplifies this approach.

D. How did US foreign policy change after 9/11? In your response, please (1) describe what happened on September 11, 2001; (2) address how President Bush responded to the attacks in his September 20 speech to the nation; (3) define the Bush doctrine.

3. Please answer EITHER question E or question F.

E. Please compare/contrast the Watergate scandal to one other impeachment case (Clinton’s impeachment, Trump’s first impeachment, or Trump’s second impeachment). In your response, please compare/contrast the allegations made against the president and the outcome of the impeachment investigation. In so doing, please also address who you think committed the greater offense and whether the penalty fit the alleged crimes.

F. What were the culture wars of the 1980s and 1990s? In your response, please (1) define the culture wars; (2) provide one explanation for why they happened; and (3) explain one example of a culture war battle.

Essay response

Please answer EITHER question I or question Il.

l. Many people view US history as a progress narrative: over time, the US has become more equal, more just, safer, and more prosperous. In this essay, please craft an argument about the accuracy of viewing US history as a progress narrative. You may agree or disagree with this claim or argue for a middle ground approach.

Specifically, in answering this question, please choose one theme/topic (including but not limited to: racial difference, gender roles, immigration, political participation, foreign policy, individual liberty) and determine whether the history of these themes/topics would lead someone to embrace a progress narrative of US history. In your essay, please explain and discuss at minimum of two examples of the theme/topic to illustrate your point and please explain how they support your argument. *One of your examples must be from the first part of the quarter, and one must be from the second half of the quarter.*

Il. American author Mark Twain said something to the effect of “History never repeats itself, but it does often rhyme.” By this he meant that though the same exact thing will not happen twice across historical time, we can see resonances or affinities between events from different historical periods.

Do you agree? In this essay, please discuss whether or if we can see historical “rhymes” between events that happened in the first half of the 20th century and the second half of the 20th century (though students are welcome to extend the timeline into the 21st century). In your response, please identify specific events or phenomena (social, political, cultural, economic, military, intellectual, media) and discuss how they do or do not “rhyme” with one another. Please contrast at minimum of two events/phenomena.


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History Question

the link to the article you will be writing this essay on:

https://nacla.org/news/2020/05/11/argentina-next-generation-finds-its-voice

This review is to be at least 3-4 pages and this due date of Friday, October 22, at 11:59 PM, corresponds to South America, such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, etc. Please submit your review through the Canvas in either of the following formats: doc, docx or PDF. Late papers will be accepted but only for one week after the assigned due date and will be assessed a full grade deduction. Please use both a title page and a works cited page (neither of these pages count toward your 3-4 pages of text). Both reports will count as a combined 20% toward your final grade, with each review counting as 10% of your overall grade. In your works cited page, compose your article entry in a format like this:

Schrader, Stuart, “From Police Reform to Police Repression: 50 Years after an Assassination,” NACLA Report on the Americas website (August 10, 2020).

In terms of the content of each report, I am looking for two main points of discussion. First, you should devote the first half of the report to a summary of the main points in the article that you selected. To help you to address this issue, consider some of these questions: What is the main issue being discussed? (i.e. immigration, elections, education, environment, women’s issues, crime, etc.) Who are the main personalities mentioned in the article? (i.e. Mexican president Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, President Biden, Vice-President Harris, former President Trump, etc.) How does the issue affect the people of the country mentioned in the article? Does the issue have any connection with United States interests? What do you think could be the best solution to resolve this problem?

And for the second point of discussion, please analyze the article that you selected and present your point of view on the story. For example, how do you feel about the story? How did this article contribute to your understanding about modern Latin America? And what do you think about the author’s perspective on the article? How does this topic have any connection to contemporary political, economic or cultural themes in the United States today?


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History Question

Hello I need help the attached African American History assignment done in full in the next hour and 15 minutes. All the directions and questions will be attached below. Please be in touch and let me know if you have any issues. Time is very important as I have a hard deadline please do not go over. Please note there are 3 parts, Part 2 is attached as photos, Part 3 is a longer essay type question.

Part 1: Terms: Choose 3 of the 6 terms below and identify (who or what; when; and significance/importance of term)

10pts/ each= 30pts total. NOTE: Be mindful of your time, be concise. You may answer in either bullet point or paragraph form.

* Project “C” * The Negro Soldier

* “Black Cabinet” *The Black Arts Movement

* Atticus *National Emergency Committee Against Mob Violence Part 3: Essays:

Choose 1 of the following questions and respond. Be concise, answer the entire “bolded” question including, covering the time-frame stipulated and provide plenty of examples to support your answer, these essays will gain the most points. 45pts.

Note: the bold question is the board question to answer, the other questions are there to help you shape your answer.

  1. How did African American challenge white supremacy from the Post-Reconstruction period through the 1930s? What political or social movements, ideas, and organizations emerged in the late 19th century and early 20th century to define race politics and race activism and why were they necessary and important? 45pts
  1. How did African American push civil rights as both a national issue and international issue in the Post-War era from 1940s-late 1960s? What were the movement(s) goals and strategies during this period? What were some of the successes and failures of the movement? What was the role of the Cold War and why was it important to the domestic Civil Rights Movement? What led to fractures within the movement and how did they represent intergenerational tensions within the movement? 45pts

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History Question

The research paper is of your choice as long as it covers the period that is being cover in the course. The research paper will be 8-10 pages in length, double spaced, using 12 point font, on plain white paper (disregard the plain white paper if this is a on-line course requirement) submit as a Microsoft word attachment. This should be similar to any paper you would write for other classes – including a title page, an introduction, body of text, a conclusion, and references/bibliography. APA or MLA format is acceptable.

Proper Citation of Sources.

When writing papers which use information from researched sources, it is necessary to provide complete and correct documentation to show the source of all words and ideas which are not those of the student. Failure to cite a source implies that the information used is the original work of the paper writer – a form of stealing known as “plagiarism.” In the college class, plagiarism is grounds for failure, no matter how well written the rest of the paper may be.

Do not use first person or contractions when writing. Also, remember that a successful term paper is not one that is written at the last moment, rather it is one that has been thought out, written, edited, and edited some more (you may consider turning in a rough draft or talking with me prior to the due date if you are unsure about how to approach writing the paper). Make sure you proofread! Nothing detracts from a paper (or grade) worse than a poorly written, mistake-filled paper.

When writing this research paper, you should attempt to address the following questions:

Why is this person or event important in U.S. Military History?

Does this individual or event represent an aspect that helped shape U.S Military History?

Would U.S. Military History be different if not for the actions of this person or the occurrence of the events? (make sure you include a solid conclusion)

Students should not use the encyclopedia or the course text book as the primary source of research. You should not rely solely on the internet for information either.

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History Question.

The first two pages of the essay should be double-spaced. The paper should be done in Times New Roman font at 12-font size. The footnotes should also be Times New Roman with an 11-font size. The paper should have a title page and a bibliography with all the cited work (both of these pages will not count towards the 2-page length). The paper must offer an argument supported by the analysis of secondary sources from the topic of Central Conflicts and Colonial Legacies (Spain and the Aztecs (minimum of at least 2 secondary sources and 1 primary source.) The paper will be graded for content, organization, and style. It should follow the term paper format linked in the Formal Paper Writing Guideline file. Make sure you provide a thesis statement or main argument at the end of the first paragraph and follow that argument throughout the paper. Explain the concepts/ideas and provide specific examples for each part. You will need to do some more research on these topics to get a better understanding. (Use academic language and check for spelling, grammar and punctuation.) Please make sure to highlight the thesis statement/main argument, so that I’ll know where it is. Discuss some of the “central conflicts” of the colonial era, our “colonial legacies” that would shape the region for centuries to come: of the conquest, subjugation and exploitation of Native peoples (native slavery, the encomienda); diseases and demographic collapse (which ones? When? Consequences?); the transatlantic slave trade (how did that happen? How many? To what regions and for what?), and the emergence of race as a hegemonic idea (why is that important?); and patriarchy as a hegemonic idea. and discuss how these would matter for the modern era- the 19th-21st Remember, “legacies” don’t have to be negative, for example: culture, transculturation, language and music. I provided some major study hints from a digital version of the Early American History book from class. I will link just Chapters 1/2, as those are the only ones necessary. The second major study hint is Hegemony Out of Conquest, a brief article by Susan Kellogg, which I have linked in a file.

http://www.americanyawp.com/text/01-the-new-world/

http://www.americanyawp.com/text/02-colliding-cultures/


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History Question

Format: 12 pt Times Roman Font, Double spaced, page numbers. MS Word document or pdf file upload.

For your final assignment, write a 4 page (maximum) explanatory research essay that takes on the following topic.

1. Using Noel’s Hypothesis, Blauner’s Hypothesis, and Myrdal’s vicious cycle to describe the historical establishment and persistence of dominant minority relations for Native Americans, African Americans and Mexican Americans <colonized groups>. (Quote and Cite your Sources from the text (Healey) videos or any lecture material). Make sure to include the following terms/concepts in your essay:

a. The social construction of social reality (Heibert)

b. The primacy of the contact situation (Healey), specifically dates (Year) the text establishes as contact situations for each colonized group.

c. The labor supply problem (Healey)

d. Sociological causes for prejudice (Healey)

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeNative AmericansUse of Noel’s Hypothesis, Blauner’s Hypothesis, and Myrdal’s vicious cycle to describe the historical establishment and persistence of dominant minority relations for Native Americans, with Quotation and Citation from course Sources from the text (Healey) videos or any lecture material).
15 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeFinal PaperThe social construction of social reality (Heibert) (5pts)

The primacy of the contact situation (Healey), specifically dates (Year) the text establishes as contact situations for each colonized group. (5pts)

The labor supply problem (Healey) (5pts)

Sociological causes for prejudice (Healey) (5pts)

20 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

20 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMexican AmericansUse of Noel’s Hypothesis, Blauner’s Hypothesis, and Myrdal’s vicious cycle to describe the historical establishment and persistence of dominant minority relations for Mexican Americans with Quotation and Citation from course Sources from the text (Healey) videos or any lecture material).

15 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAfrican AmericansUse of Noel’s Hypothesis, Blauner’s Hypothesis, and Myrdal’s vicious cycle to describe the historical establishment and persistence of dominant minority relations for African Americans with Quotation and Citation from course Sources from the text (Healey) videos or any lecture material).

15 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

15 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSyntax, Grammar, Page Numbers

5 pts

Full Marks

0 pts

No Marks

5 pts

Total Points: 70

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History Question

The first two pages of the essay should be double-spaced. The paper should be done in Times New Roman font at 12-font size. The footnotes should also be Times New Roman with an 11-font size. The paper should have a title page and a bibliography with all the cited work (both of these pages will not count towards the 2-page length). The paper must offer an argument supported by the analysis of secondary sources from the topic of Central Conflicts and Colonial Legacies (Spain and the Aztecs (minimum of at least 2 secondary sources and 1 primary source.) The paper will be graded for content, organization, and style. It should follow the term paper format linked in the Formal Paper Writing Guideline file. Make sure you provide a thesis statement or main argument at the end of the first paragraph and follow that argument throughout the paper. Explain the concepts/ideas and provide specific examples for each part. You will need to do some more research on these topics to get a better understanding. (Use academic language and check for spelling, grammar and punctuation.) Please make sure to highlight the thesis statement/main argument, so that I’ll know where it is. Discuss some of the “central conflicts” of the colonial era, our “colonial legacies” that would shape the region for centuries to come: of the conquest, subjugation and exploitation of Native peoples (native slavery, the encomienda); diseases and demographic collapse (which ones? When? Consequences?); the transatlantic slave trade (how did that happen? How many? To what regions and for what?), and the emergence of race as a hegemonic idea (why is that important?); and patriarchy as a hegemonic idea. and discuss how these would matter for the modern era- the 19th-21st Remember, “legacies” don’t have to be negative, for example: culture, transculturation, language and music. I provided some major study hints from a digital version of the Early American History book from class. I will link just Chapters 1/2, as those are the only ones necessary. The second major study hint is Hegemony Out of Conquest, a brief article by Susan Kellogg, which I have linked in a file.

http://www.americanyawp.com/text/01-the-new-world/

http://www.americanyawp.com/text/02-colliding-cultures/


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History Question

Please discuss the following prompt:

There is a story of a Buddhist monk who was on a ship with a maniac who was killing everyone on board. The monk eventually decided to kill the man in order to prevent further harm of others on board. Do you think this conforms with the principles set out in Buddhism? Why or why not? How do you think karma and compassion come into play in this story?

Rubric

Mini Essay Rubric with Guide

Mini Essay Rubric with Guide

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEngagementThis judges your ability to answer the prompt. It not only includes content, but also ensures you adhere to the length requirements

7 pts

Full Marks

Full marks have been achieved. You have clearly answered the prompt fully and reached the word length requirement.

6.09 pts

Very Good

This answered the prompt, but only superficially. More depth is required. This may have also been short of the required word length.

5.18 pts

Good

This doesn’t really address the prompt fully, and/or does not meet the word length requirements. More is required.

4.27 pts

Satisfactory

Does not really address the prompt, and is significantly short of the word length requirements.

3.36 pts

Fail

Fails to address the prompt in any meaningful way.

0 pts

No Marks

7 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeKnowledgeThis judges your ability to understand the greater issues at play within the prompt. It not only includes understanding, but also examines how these themes relate to larger themes in the class or in the world.

6 pts

Excellent

Full marks have been achieved. You have clearly understand and have addressed the issues at play.

5.22 pts

Very Good

This shows a pretty good understanding of the material, but some points were confused or unclear.

4.44 pts

Good

There were some significant parts that demonstrated a lack of understanding or were unclear.

3.66 pts

Satisfactory

Does not really understand or address the issues at play, but does touch on some of the themes raised in class.

2.88 pts

Fail

Fails to understand the issues in any meaningful way.

0 pts

No Marks

6 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCritical AnalysisThis judges your ability to critically analyze the issues in a meaningful way. It shows your ability to think for yourself, and support your claims with evidence.

7 pts

Excellent

Full marks have been achieved. You have clearly demonstrated you critical analysis of the material by digesting the material and using original thought to explain your understanding.

6.09 pts

Very Good

This shows a some strong critical analysis, but has relied too heavily on other’s ideas and opinions, without contributing much of your own thinking.

5.18 pts

Good

Much of your ideas were lost, but instead only relied on opinions of others to do the thinking for you. It tends to be only a series of quotes and cited material, without your voice entering into the picture.

4.27 pts

Satisfactory

Does not really provide much critical analysis either from others or yourself.

3.36 pts

Fail

Fails to provide any sort of analysis at all.

0 pts

No Marks

7 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResearchThis judges your ability to research your material. You should have at least one external peer reviewed source, and one text we have used for class

4 pts

Excellent

Full marks have been achieved. You have not only met, but exceeded the requirements for finding and utilizing peer reviewed sources relevant to the issues.

3.48 pts

Very Good

This was very good. You have met the minimum requirements for finding peer reviewed sources relevant to the issues.

2.96 pts

Good

This does not meet the required number of peer reviewed sources, but does have at least some.

2.44 pts

Satisfactory

This has sources, but they are not peer reviewed or not relevant to the issues.

0 pts

Incomplete

Fails to provide any meaningful research at all.

4 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStructure/Flow/GrammarThis judges your ability to organize your thoughts in your essay in a clear and well structured manner. It also demonstrates a writing style that complements the information you are trying to portray.

3 pts

Excellent

Full marks have been achieved. Your writing is clear and easy to follow from point to point. Is structured well, with no/very few grammatical mistakes, and flows nicely from start to finish.

2.61 pts

Very Good

This was very good, but had a number of grammatical mistakes and/or issues with flow. Be sure to look at my writing tips for things to avoid.

2.22 pts

Good

This had significant grammar and/or structural issues. The points were difficult to follow and seemed to lack flow from one point to another.

1.83 pts

Satisfactory

Some structure but hard to follow

1.44 pts

Fail

Not really structured at all and/or very difficult to read.

0 pts

No Marks

3 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCitationThis judges your ability to properly cite your research and resources. I require the use of Chicago (CMS) style. I have provided a resource through my writing tip about how to use the style of citation.

3 pts

Excellent

Full marks have been achieved. You have citied everything perfectly.

2.61 pts

Very Good

This was close, but there was some inconsistency in your citations. Sometimes you got it, and sometimes you didn’t.

2.22 pts

Good

This was good, but you are likely missing some information in your footnotes/bibliography.

1.83 pts

Satisfactory

This means your are probably confusing Chicago style with other styles, or you have used Chicago style, but forgot a bibliography.

1.44 pts

Fail

Simply did not use Chicago style at all. You may have used another style perfectly, but that is not what I require.

0 pts

Incomplete

Failed to use any footnotes and/or bibliography at all through your essay, neglecting to properly cite any information.

3 pts

Total Points: 30


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History Question

Please construct an essay response (complete with an introduction, body, and conclusion paragraphs) of 1000 total words for this question. Provide several examples and an explanation derived from course content to support your answer. Your answers should be complete and comprehensive. What do these selected examples show us? You will be graded for the completeness and comprehensiveness of your response and use of examples.

Students can exceed the 1000 words minimum without grade deduction, however, students will receive a grade deduction for writing less than 1000 total minimum words for their exam. The word count is the body of the text excluding a cover page (if you decide to include one), header, footnotes, and attached bibliography (if you decide to include one). Since footnotes contain all citation information, an attached bibliography is not necessary.

Students often lose points for not explaining the importance of their selected examples. Students should not simply list a series of examples. Students should instead provide analysis and explanation upon their selected examples to illustrate their understanding of the significance and importance of that selected example. Why was that example chosen to support your exam response? How does your selected example support your argument? Be specific, clear, and concise.

Students will be evaluated on their understanding and comprehension of the course material as provided and presented by the instructor. Exams should demonstrate a mastery of course content as provided in the instructor lectures and supplemented by the course textbook.

You are not expected to locate external sources for your responses. Feel free to treat this as an open book/open note exam. Feel free to use anything and everything posted to Blackboard.

As indicated in the syllabus, students should be citing any and all sources used on all course assignments. This is a general rule when submitting work in college. Sources need reference and citation when they are used. If your work summarizes, directly quotes, and/or paraphrases information from any source, it needs a reference. In academic work, sources need to be referenced to credit the original author. If you’re making broad or overall assessments of the content without direct connection to the source, it would not need a citation. If you’re, however, closely following the language, tone, and structure of the text, it needs a citation to credit the original author. I indicate this general rule in the section on plagiarism in the syllabus. I also have a guide posted that provides instructions to insert footnotes (and a sample piece of text to show footnotes inserted) in the Using Footnotes Using Chicago guide available on Blackboard.

If students use external sources (i.e. sources not provided by the instructor) for their exams, these sources should follow the criteria as listed in the research guide and research videos. As a reminder, all sources (i.e. sources provided by the instructor, the course textbook, and/or external sources as located by students) need to be cited when paraphrasing, summarizing, and/or directly quoting from its contents.

Students should complete their own original work for each exam for this course. Students should not re-submit sections or pieces of earlier exams for later exams in the course. Since exams will be scanned by SafeAssign, the results will show if the text from exams are similar in structure or language to other student’s exams (either students at this institution or other institutions), similar in structure and language to external sources, and/or similar in structure and language to course content as provided by the instructor.

Responses are to be submitted to the dropbox on Blackboard by the due date. No late work will be accepted. No work will be accepted via email. Ensure your attachments are Word documents or PDFs. Students should NOT use Pages or GoogleDocs formats for their work. You may also put the text of your exam into the textbox. Students should submit all of their exam responses to Blackboard in the above specified, readable formats (i.e Word Document or PDF document). Only those exams submitted in readable formats, able to be opened by the instructor for grading, and submitted on time (i.e. by the specified due date and time) will be eligible for grading.

EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY: Students can earn bonus points for each day the exam is submitted early. Students can earn 5 (Five) points per day for a maximum of 50 points added to their final exam score. Points will be awarded based on whole 24 hour periods prior to the exam deadline in increments of 5 (five) points.

QUESTION: Pick five (5) events to illustrate social, political, legal, and cultural change during the period examined in this course. Why were these selected five (5) events the most important? Explain the details surrounding your selected events to explain why they were chosen as the most important events to describe this period in US history as examined in this course.

Tips for Answering: For this question, I want you to think of the most significant events that best capture this period (as examined in this class) to show change, growth, and progression. This is purely your opinion on the most important events, but I want you to detail why these events were chosen for your responses. They do not have to be related events. They do not need to take place in the same time period, same decade, or same century. I ask that you think about which events had the most impact upon the United States between this period. Think about the themes of social, political, legal, and cultural change when you select your events. You’re not required to pick an event to reflect each of these themes. These are mere suggestions to help you pick events.

For examples, events can include wars, the creation (or changes) in government, presidential elections, changes in political thought, assassinations or use of violence, social movements, legal changes, political movements and/or changes in political parties, and social or cultural trends. When I grade this, I’m looking to see you fully answered the question in the minimum word count, explained the importance of your selected examples, and concluded with some summarizing statement. Students often lose points for not providing some sustentative concluding remarks on why those specific examples were chosen are the best examples to describe this period in American history as examined in this course. This exam is to be a cumulative and comprehensive assessment of the whole course and its content. Since this is the course’s final exam, you are expected to demonstrate a mastery of this course’s content (and topics as examined in this course) through this response.


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History Question

Prompt:

Compare the settlements of Virginia and Pennsylvania in regard to the reasons for their founding, forms of government, and the people who actually settled the new colonies. Use, quote and cite The Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges and the First Charter of Virginia as well as Virginia law on indentured servitude, the textbook, and at least 2 other secondary sources. (Not Wikipedia!). The discussion essay should be 650 to 750 words using MLA in-text citation. Place the Word Count at the end of your paper and include a separate MLA Works Cited.

Guidelines:
Your Discussion Essay will be a 650-750 word essay with a separate Works Cited written in MLA style and format. Your essay will mention the sources (proof) used within the Essay with in-text citations and your Works Cited will contain a list of all of the sources (evidence) you used to support (prove) your statements.

Each paragraph must be supported by at least one source. If you have quoted your source using exact words, place quotation marks around your quote and follow it immediately with the parenthetical in-text citation. If you just use and reword information from the source or sources you use within the paragraph, place the parenthetical intext citation at the end of the paragraph. When your source is a book, the in-text citation will be the author’s last name and the page number where you found the information. If your source is a speech or writing by someone, use the speaker/writer’s last name in the parenthesis.

You MUST cite these sources:

1) Pennsylvania charter of privileges (attatched pdf)

2)First charter of Virginia (attatched pdf)

3)Virginia Law on Indentured Servitude(attached pdf)

4)The book (The Brief American Pageant: A History of the Republic, Volume I: To 1877, 9th Edition)(i cannot provide you with the book but please dont forget to cite it)

5)two other secondary resources but NOT wikipedia


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History Question

Must have this book for the assignment

Paul Fussell, Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War. Oxford, 1989. ISBN 0-19-506577-8

Dr. Utgaard

Cuyamaca College

History 109 Modern American History

Discussion Questions and Paper Assignment for Paul Fussell’s Wartime

Paul Fussell was an infantry officer in the ETO (European Theatre of Operations) during World War II.After the war he became an English professor.His book Wartime is a unique combination of historical and literary analysis.The book focuses on American and British experiences. Take notes on the questions below as you read the book.Making some notes will help you understand the book and also prepare you for your paper assignment on Wartime. For each chapter, you should flag at least two examples!

Preface

Why do you think Fussell dedicated the book to his parents “who sent socks and books.”

What is the book about?

Chapter 1: From Light to Heavy Duty

What does Fussell mean by the shift from light to heavy duty?

Chapter 2: “Precision Bombing Will Win the War”

What was the difference between what air power promised and what air power was capable of during the war?

Chapter 3:Someone Had Blundered

What were some of the greatest blunders of the war?How did authorities deal with blunders and why?

Chapter 4:Rumors of War

Fussell writes: “Living in wartime thus resembled living in a play, with nothing real or certain.”What does he mean?What are some examples of war rumors Fussell discusses?

Chapter 5:School of the Soldier

What link does Fussell make between the language of education and military training?What does this chapter reveal about the creation of mass armies?

Chapter 6:Unread Books on a Shelf

What is meant by “unread books on a shelf?” How did the creation ofmass armies impact individuality?

Chapter 7: Chickenshit, An Anatomy

What is “chickenshit?”What role does “chickenshit” play in a mass army or any large bureaucratic organization for that matter?

Chapter 8:Drinking Far Too Much, Copulating Too Little

What role did alcohol play in the lives of the men in the mass armies of World War II?What kind of sexual relationships were possible given the nature of mass mobilization and overseas deployment?

Chapter 9: Type-casting

How were the Japanese, Germans, and Italians depicted during the war?What was the American self image?

Chapter 10:The Ideological Vacuum

Perhaps the most cynical and controversial chapter in the book, what does Fussell mean by an “ideological vacuum?”What motivated soldiers in the Allied armies?

Chapter 11:Accentuate the Positive

What role did language and public relations play in the war?

Chapter 12:High-mindedness

[optional]This chapter is challenging to understand without an extensive background in literature.Fussell looks at many examples and concludes that the demands of war had a major impact on literature and literary analysis.What was that impact?

Chapter 13:With One Voice

How did radio, film, and advertising contribute to a culture of conformity? What was the significance of the song “Roll Out the Barrel?”

Chapter 14:Deprivation

What kinds of goods were rationed on the home front?What was the difference between wartime rationing in the United States compared to Great Britain?

Chapter 15:Compensation

[optional]This chapter is heavy on literary analysis.Whatkinds of works were produced during the war that Fussell considers very good?

Chapter 16:Reading in Wartime

What kinds of books did American and British soldiers read during the war?What do the reading choices of Americans and British reveal about their culture?

Chapter 17:Fresh Idiom

What is meant by “fresh idiom?”What are some examples of new language and vocabulary that was invented by servicemen during the war?

Chapter 18: “The Real War Will Never Get in the Books”

What does Fussell emphasize as the radical difference between the experiences of front-line troops, rear echelon troops, and [American] civilians during the war?How were wartime experiences reflected in some key postwar memoirs?What is significant about Fussell ending with a reference to Eisenhower’s prepared D-Day failure statement (that he never had to make)?

Paper Assignment.100 points.

Write a 2.5-3-page paper on one of the prompts below.Your paper must use at least six specific examples from at least three different chapters.This is a one source paper.Only use the book Wartime.Do not include additional sources.Paper is due on Sunday 2 May.

Use page number citations for direct quotes and also for specific references!!!!This is how you cite sources:

Example 1:Fussell explains how soldiers were subject to the arbitrary power that could make their lives miserable.They called it “chickenshit.”“Chickenshit can be recognized instantly because it never has anything to do with winning the war.”(80)

Example 2:Fussell explains how soldiers had to put up with “chickenshit.”By this he means the petty rules and indignities that don’t really help win the war.(80)

In the first example I directly quoted so I used a page number reference.In the second example, I paraphrased his idea, but I still use a page number reference.

Paper Prompts.Base your paper on one of these questions.

1.What does Fussell’s book reveal about being an individual in a mass army?What pressures to conform did servicemen feel?How much control did they have over their lives?In what ways did they cope and/or rebel?

2.What are some of the major differences between the way the war was experienced and the way the war was portrayed in, film, advertising, etc?

3.Mass mobilization and the war created new experiences that had an impact on the English language.What were some of the ways that the war impacted language and literature in the English-speaking countries?What new words and phrases came into the English language?


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History Question

This oral paper will be divided into two parts with different due dates.

Part 1 – Due Nov 7 by 5pm

Please submit a paragraph indicating who your interview is going to be with and what you anticipate the topic to be. For instance:

“The topic and research part of my paper will about the evolution of gender policy in the armed forces particularly in regards to the LGBTQ community. To speak with firsthand knowledge about the topic I will be talking to my friend who is gay and served in the military for four years.”

Also, include a few sentences on which examples you read that stood out the most to you and why?

That’s all you need for this part of the assignment. When you do the interview, you can ask questions that are beyond the scope of the topic and more general, i.e., “what was it like growing up knowing you were gay?” Or, “what made you decide to join the military?”, etc., meaning, not every question has to specifically address your main issue. Let your reader get a sense of who the person is in a more complete way.

Part 2 – Due Nov 20 by 5pm

Historians gather information in a variety of ways including through firsthand accounts from primary sources, such as in an interview. Think of someone you believe has an interesting story to tell. You may interview anyone about anything they have personal firsthand knowledge of. Structurally, for our purposes, your first two or three pages should include research about the topic, and the rest should be your word-for-word recorded exchange with whomever you decided to interview. Keep in mind the research topic is separate from your interview. In other words, your research topic is not “my uncle’s experience as a small business owner”. That would be your interview. The research topic might be something like “small business owners trying to compete in a corporate Amazon/Walmart world” or “the mechanics and challenges of starting your own small business”, etc. Think of it first as if there was no interview — what then would your two or three-page research paper be about? Your interview can then be about the person who relates to your topic and captures their personal experiences.


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History Question

Using the main class textbook, The Making of the West, describe the causes, course, and consequences of the Protestant Reformation in a four-page essay.

You need to write a minimum of one page on each part of the essay question in the following order. You must follow this outline or face a grade reduction.

A minimum of one page describing the causes and origins of the Protestant Reformation.

A minimum of one page describing the spread of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and beyond.

A minimum of one page describing the consequences of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic reaction to it.

Format Instructions:

  1. Type the essay using a 12-point font, double-spacing, one-inch margins and no extra spaces between paragraphs. Format your word processor properly.
  2. Type your name, the date, History 1 and Spring 2021 and on a separate cover page.
  3. Do not use any quotations, do not copy sentences directly from the book, citations, or footnotes at all in the essay. Write the essay in your own words.
  4. The Making of the West contains all the information you need to write the essay. You cannot use any other sources to write the paper.
  5. Only turn in original work. Plagiarism will result in an “F” the paper and a report to university officials.
  6. Failure to follow these instructions will impact the final grade you receive on the paper.
  7. The essay needs to end on page four. The cover page does not count towards this length requirement. Do not write beyond the fourth page. You will not receive credit for any part of the essay after the fourth page.
  8. Do not reference the book directly by writing “On page 3 of Making of the West” or “In Chapter 14 of Making of the West.”
  9. Do not use contractions. You spell out don’t as do not in formal writing.
  10. Do not use the personal voice, “I belive” or “I think.”

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History Question

Q13

From the Readings

  1. In Peter Hall and David Soskice’s seminal work Varieties of Capitalism, they present two major contrasting approaches to organizing a capitalist market economy: Liberal Market Economy (LME) and Coordinated Market Economy (CME). Outline the principal differences between LMEs and CMEs and provide an example of a country in each category.
  2. State capitalism is another variety of capitalism and is most closely associated with China. The Economist article provides a detailed analysis of Xi Jinping’s most recent expression of China’s state capitalist model and the so-called “whole-nation system.” What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this system according to the article?

From the Lecture

  1. Comment on the following quote from Chinese economist Zhang Weiying:“China’s reform started with an all-powerful government under the planned economy. The reason China could have sustained economic growth during the process of reform was [that] the government managed less, and the proportion of state-owned enterprises decreased, not the other way around. It was precisely the relaxation of government control that brought about market prices, sole proprietorships, town and village enterprises, private enterprises, foreign enterprises, and other non-state-owned entities.”

Discussion 14

This week we consider the idea of global governance, in particular, governance of the global economy. We have already analyzed the role of institutions like the IMF, World Bank, WTO, and intergovernmental meetings such as the G20. These can be seen as efforts to coordinate policy and direct the economy on an international level. As you can see from the above example, it seems it takes a mixture of international organizations and national governments to achieve any level of global governance. The United States remains the world’s leading economy and a leader in these efforts, but is facing relative decline and growing competition, for example from China and the European Union. How do you see the future of global economic governance developing? Consider the role of and interplay between international organizations, transnational actors, and states.

QUIZ 14

From the Readings

  1. Risse describes how realists, liberals, and critical theorists (like dependency theorists) view Multi-National Corporations (MNCs). Summarize these different perspectives (see p. 262).
  2. Explain the term “tripartite global governance” and the advantages and disadvantages of such a system as described by Risse (see p. 268).

From the Lecture

  1. When it comes to multinational corporations, list some of the home and host country advantages and disadvantages.

Topic: BUS 3850-001 Spring 2021 The Rise of Global Capitalism
Date:Apr 16,2021 3:10 PM Mountain Time (US and Canada)


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History Question

Upload your annotated bibliography here. If you’ve never done an annotated bibliography before and you aren’t sure about length, I would say you will have a minimum of one paragraph for each of these and up to a page or possibly longer. For visual sources or material culture objects, please provide an image as well as the citation.

  • Identify at least six sources of information (five plus total and the UNESCO link / date(s) accessed) regarding your site. The description of the site provided by UNESCO will likely help lead you to additional sources. Other sources might include primary sources from travelers, ethnographers, religious specialists, etc. or visual materials, material culture objects, architecture of the actual space, legends, literary works, newspaper articles, or secondary materials from peer reviewed journal articles and books. Please to not cite Wikipedia or the like. For each of your five non-UNESCO sources please provide annotations (in the form of an annotated bibliography). This will include the citation or bibliographic information; a brief description of the author and source type; an overall summary of what the source includes; and detailed information about what is significant about that source in terms of its relevance to your topic and argument(s).
  • Use the Chicago Style Guide for formatting, You will use the bibliography entry style for your annotated bibliography: https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.html
  • UCOR 3400 Final Paper Guidelines: The Choosen World Heritage site is The Great Wall of China
  • Select a World Heritage site to focus on for this project. This may be the same Heritage site you selected for your video presentation or any other site on the list: https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/ (Links to an external site.)
    Develop a thesis about your selected Heritage Site. Some things to consider when developing your argument(s) might include the following: Why was this site nominated as a World Heritage site? Who are the stake holders? Was the site contested and or claimed by multiple groups of people, and if so, then why? What was the site like before it was incepted into the UNESCO list? What changed after it obtained World Heritage status? What does World Heritage mean according to UNESCO? Is that the only way to understand why a particular space or place is meaningful? Do you agree with the top down (i.e., UNESCO’s criteria as universal) approach of designating a place as a cultural heritage site? What are the costs / benefits to such an approach? Who funds and enacts the upkeep and management of the site? Is there a tension between local needs and global desires? Are there multiple local interpretations of why the site is meaningful to cultural heritage? Are there multiple local interpretations of why the site is meaningful otherwise (e.g., people live there; worship there; etc.). How does the idea of designating UNESCO World Heritage sites reframe our understanding of the past? If the site is in danger, what is putting the site at risk and are there multiple ways of interpreting whether or not said thing is an actual danger?
    :
    Research your topic. The first place to look is the UNESCO World Heritage website where you can locate the place you have chosen. It is a great resource for information on the site and will be the best source for determining when the site was nominated and incepted into the list, the current status and use of the site, and whether or not the site is at risk for endangerment according to UNESCOs criteria. Generate a thesis statement. If you need guidance on generating a thesis please review the writing materials on Canvas and contact me if you prefer to discuss.
    Identify at least six sources of information (five plus total and the UNESCO link / date(s) accessed) regarding your site. The description of the site provided by UNESCO will likely help lead you to additional sources. Other sources might include primary sources from travelers, ethnographers, religious specialists, etc. or visual materials, material culture objects, architecture of the actual space, legends, literary works, newspaper articles, or secondary materials from peer reviewed journal articles and books. Please to not cite Wikipedia or the like. For each of your five non-UNESCO sources please provide annotations (in the form of an annotated bibliography). This will include the citation or bibliographic information; a brief description of the author and source type; an overall summary of what the source includes; and detailed information about what is significant about that source in terms of its relevance to your topic and argument(s).
    Prepare an 8-10 page research paper (a little longer or shorter is fine).

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History Question

This assignment serves the purpose of getting you to respond in brief format critically and factually to a specific policy issue within our state, vouchers. I have provided several sources from which to draw understanding, but you may also use your own in developing your responses. These sources can be cited but cannot count toward your overall required number of sources (at least 3) in the paper. The provided news articles and primary source are a good starting point for building your initial knowledge of the topic as well as your awareness of what good resources “look like.”

To successfully complete your submission, make sure your paper meets all the following:

  • Submit the assignment as a Word Document.
  • Submit to Drop Box in D2L in the Thought Paper Assignment Tab when complete.
  • Use standard margins on your pages (you should not have to change anything when you open up Word).
  • Use 12-point Times New Roman Font.
  • Have a heading with your name, the date, and the course information in the top LEFT corner.
  • Double space the body of your paper (not the heading and title).
  • Use parenthetical citations of information taken from sources within the body of your paper.
  • Final paper must be between 800 and 1,000 words (any more or less will result in the reduction of the final score by a letter grade).
  • Have at least three academically sound sources (like major national newspapers, peer-reviewed journal articles, or scholarly research) that are not the samples I have provided for you.
  • Make sure no more than 20% of your paper may be taken from other sources. If your TurnItIn percentage crosses this, you will automatically lose a letter grade.

Citations:

  • Use in-text parenthetical citations within the document when you are quoting or using information from a source.
  • Include a Works Cited (MLA) or Reference List (Chicago Style author-date citations), on a separate page at the end of the paper.
  • Citations do not count toward your overall word count.

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History Question

Short Answer Questions #4

  • You are to choose ONE question from part A and ONE question from part B to answer.
  • Your answers should be in complete sentences and be between two to three paragraphs.
  • You may only use the information provided to you from your textbook or reading in the module.
  • Please use proper citation, and upload the document as a Microsoft Word attachment.

Plagiarism policy: In the case of plagiarism, there will be no rewrites. At a minimum, you will receive a “0” for the assignment and a referral to the Dean.

Please refer to the Short Answer Questions Rubric to understand how you may earn full credit for this assignment.

Part A:

  1. Using the American Presidency: An Online Resource, choose either Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, or Barak Obama. Next, scroll to “Life in Essays,” and read about the foreign affairs of the president you chose. After reading the essay, summarize the foreign issues that the President had to deal with and analyze whether he made the correct choice or not. Use information from the course and the website to explain your answer. – https://bconline.broward.edu/d2l/le/content/468452…
  2. After viewing “Terrorism, War and Bush 43,” and “George W. Bush: The Night of 9-11,” how did the terrorist attacks of September 11 shape U.S. foreign policy? – https://bconline.broward.edu/d2l/le/content/468452…
  3. After reading “The President’s Speech in Cairo: A New Beginning,” and watching “Terrorism, War and Bush 42,” to what extent is Obama’s speech a repudiation of Bush’s foreign policy? Explain with details from each source. – https://bconline.broward.edu/d2l/le/content/468452…

Part B:

  1. How conservative was Ronald Reagan? Why might some conservatives feel he did not go far enough, while some liberals felt that he dismantled too much?
  2. How did President George H.W. Bush intervene in the Middle East in 1990 -1991? – https://bconline.broward.edu/d2l/le/content/468452…
  3. How did computers change American life? Compare the impact of the computer with that of any other invention in history (car, telephone, steam engine, etc.)

https://bconline.broward.edu/d2l/le/content/468452…


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History Question

Answer the following question in a 1000-word essay. Your essay
should be based on a nuanced understanding of the topics we have talked
about in lectures and discussions as well as the readings.Make sure you offer a strong thesis (or argument), and then support your case with convincing evidence and examples.Essays that do not make use of any of the non-textbook readings will not receive a passing score:

The events that led to the foundation of the United States have
variously been described as “the American Revolution” or “the American
War of Independence.”Which do you think is a more fitting description?Was
this a revolution, which not only overthrew a government but also
ushered in revolutionary social, political, and/or cultural changes?Or
was it merely a war of independence, in which one government replaced
another, without disturbing social relationships and Americans’ everyday
lives to any great extent?Was it a forward-looking
attempt to create a new revolutionary society, or a conservative
struggle to take America back to the way things were before 1763? (Or
was it something else altogether?)

As you begin to think about this question, you may want to consider the issues raised by the historian George Allan Billias:

Was the transformation [from English colonies into the United States of America] sweeping enough to justify the term revolutionary?Did the new nation differ that much from the former colonies?Did the laws, institutions and customs of the United States constitute a sharp break with the British heritage?Was American society radically reshaped and restructured as a result of independence?Was
there a dramatic shift in the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of most
Americans in the relationship between individuals and their government,
the society, and with one another?Within the context of
our nation’s history, such issues may be reduced to a single question:
How revolutionary was our Revolution?

To successfully answer this question, you will need to present at least two major areas in which America either did or did not
see revolutionary change (depending on your argument), as well as one
area that might support a counterargument (for example, if you argue
that it was not a revolution, an area that did nonetheless see
significant change).Your essay should successfully
support your argument based on your two major supporting examples, and
clearly show why they outweigh the counterargument you also examine.

___________________________________________________________________________

The Rules

  • Due Date: Sunday, October 31, 11:59PM
  • Length: 1000 words (anywhere between 900-1200 will be acceptable).
    This will come out to roughly 3-4 pages, depending on your font and
    margins. It is OK if you go a little over the maximum word count.It is not OK to offer less than the minimum.
  • Format: your essay should be double-spaced, and typed in a
    reasonable 12-point font with standard margins (Hint: nothing makes you
    look more desperate than using a font like Courier New that noticeably
    stretches the text. If in doubt, use Times New Roman).
  • Please highlight or underline your thesis sentence in your introduction
  • This is not a research paper, but a paper designed to evaluate how well you can use material from this class—readings, lectures, and discussions—to present and support a convincing historical argument. Therefore, you may not use sources from outside our class.
  • All quotes or references to specific reading passages must be
    properly cited to avoid plagiarizing. If you have any questions about
    what does and does not constitute plagiarism (some cases of plagiarism
    are due more to carelessness than an intention to cheat), do not
    hesitate to ask me.
  • To cite a source from our class, you need only put the author’s name
    in parentheses at the end of the sentence that contains the quote or
    reference. For example: “The authority of parliament was allowed to be valid in all laws, except such as should lay internal taxes”
    (Franklin). If you are citing the online textbook, please site the name
    of the book, followed by the chapter and section number.For example, (American Yawp, Chapter 5, Section IV).
  • You need not cite lecture material.
  • Since all of your sources will be drawn from this class, you do not need to include a Works Cited page.
  • Since history is a collaborative effort, you may talk together with
    your classmates as you think about the issues involved in writing your
    essay. However, you are on your own for the writing process, and your
    final essay must be your own unique product.

Essay-Writing Advice

  • The success of your paper will depend largely on your ability to
    develop a strong thesis (argument) in your introduction, and then
    support this thesis with solid, appropriate evidence. A good thesis does
    not simply summarize what you are going to write. Rather it introduces
    the reader to the specific historical argument you will be defending
    with the rest of your paper.Remember, if your thesis is
    so vague that someone else in the class could not reasonably argue
    against it, or it simply restates the question in the form of a
    statement, then it is probably not very good.
  • The Thesis: A good thesis takes a position on the major issue raised
    by the prompt, and introduces the argument you are going to try to
    convince the reader of with the rest of the essay. It also offers the
    reader a basic understanding of why you are taking the position
    you do. This means it is not enough to simply take a position on the
    issue—you also need to offer the reader, in a concise sentence clause, a
    sense of why you are taking this position.
  • To give a hypothetical example: if I were to ask you to write an
    essay on whether the American Revolutionary War was inevitable, or if it
    could have been avoided with better diplomacy, a weak thesis might
    simply state: “the Revolutionary War was inevitable.” Although this
    takes a position, it does nothing more than restate the question in the
    form of a statement, and no matter how insightful the rest of the essay
    is, none of your insights will be working to support an effective
    argument. A better but still mediocre argument might say something like
    “The Revolutionary War was inevitable because of the political
    conditions of the 1770s.”It’s better, but still vague—what political conditions, in particular, made effective diplomacy impossible in the 1770s?A
    stronger thesis might say something like “the Revolutionary War was
    inevitable because, regardless of the common desire to have the colonies
    remain within the British Empire, each side possessed fundamentally
    different ideas on the nature of political power in the Empire.”Note
    that this is not the “correct” answer to our hypothetical prompt—your
    classmates might make equally compelling arguments that the
    Revolutionary War was not inevitable at all, for any number of
    convincing reasons.But this thesis takes a position on the major issue of the prompt, and lets the reader know how you will support it.The
    goal of the rest of the essay would be to support this thesis—not give
    an overview of the American Revolution, but directly support the case
    that diplomacy was hopeless given the conflicting visions each side held
    of political power in the Empire.
  • For this paper, your thesis should make clear: 1) whether or not you
    believe the American Revolution was truly “revolutionary” 2) why, in
    general terms, you are making this argument.
  • Once you have a good thesis, make sure everything you write serves
    the purpose of supporting that thesis, including refuting a
    counterargument. Ensuring that each paragraph has a strong topic
    sentence that develops your thesis, and then contains sufficient
    examples, evidence, and analysis to support that topic sentence, will
    help keep you from getting off track or rambling off in irrelevant
    tangents.
  • Use sufficient examples, evidence, and good quotes to support your
    case, and use them well. A few meaningful, well-placed examples will go a
    lot further than a bunch of random, unexplained evidence thrown in for
    its own sake.
  • The best papers will not simply ignore evidence that challenges
    their thesis, but will meet this evidence head on, and then show why
    their own interpretation is more convincing.
  • Avoid writing in the first person. Statements that begin “I think,”
    or “I believe,” or even “I argue” sound weak. You should be able to
    muster enough good evidence to make your points convincingly without
    watering them down with wishy-washy first-person qualifications.If
    you cannot support a point with good evidence, or at least offer
    evidence that suggests your particular interpretation, then perhaps you
    should simply leave that point out.
  • Grammar, punctuation, spelling, etc. will all be factors in your
    grade. Beyond simply running spell-check, MAKE SURE YOU REREAD YOUR
    PAPER BEFORE YOU PRINT IT AND TURN IT IN! (It might also be beneficial
    to revisit your introduction and your thesis after you’ve written the
    whole paper to ensure the essay actually accomplishes what you set out
    to do.If it doesn’t, you may need to revise your thesis.)
  • Before beginning your essays, I would encourage you to read the
    essay-writing guides I have posted on Canvas, which were written by Dr.
    Patrick Rael, a history professor at Bowdoin College in Maine. They are
    among the best I’ve seen in advising students how to craft a strong
    thesis statement and more generally how to write an effective history
    essay. You can find many more history writing tips from Dr. Rael here: http://www.bowdoin.edu/writing-guides/ (Links to an external site.)
  • Finally, if you are having trouble writing your essay, or you are
    unsure how effective it is, I would encourage you to run it by Fullerton
    College’s Writing Center: https://academicsupport.fullcoll.edu. They’re
    not miracle workers, and they won’t be able to do much for you if you
    aren’t putting forth any effort of your own, but they can help you
    better do what you want to do with your essay.

Pre-Submission Checklist

If you can answer “yes” to all of these questions, then you have the
basis of an adequate paper. What will separate the good and truly great
papers from the adequate papers will be the quality of your ideas, the
convincingness of your argument and evidence, and the clarity of your
writing.

YES/NO Did you thoroughly read the Essay Rules and
Essay-Writing Advice included in this assignment before writing your
essay, so you know what I expect from you?

YES/NO Does your paper have a clear thesis (i.e.,
argument) in the introduction that takes a position on the major issue
raised by the essay prompt, and did you underline or highlight it?Could someone reasonably argue against your thesis?If not, your thesis is probably too vague or generic to be effective.For
example, “The American Revolution was an important event in American
history” is not a good thesis, since it is vague and hard to dispute.

YES/NO Does everything you write work to
support your thesis, and in doing so, adequately address the major
issue raised by the essay prompt?

YES/NO Are you sure you are not just summarizing information about the American Revolution, rather than using good information to support your argument?Remember,
you are trying to convince me of your argument, not just show me you
know a lot of stuff about the American Revolution.

YES/NO Do you use relevant examples and evidence from
the class material to support your major ideas, which in turn support
your thesis?Are you sure you are not just inserting
evidence for the sake of inserting evidence, rather than making sure it
is the best possible evidence to support your argument?

YES/NO Do you use evidence from the readings as well as lecture material?

YES/NO Do you recognize potential counterarguments or evidence that might challenge your thesis?Do you successfully show why your argument is better, based on the solid evidence you use to support it?

YES/NO Have you revisited your introduction and
thesis after completing the essay to make sure the essay you wrote still
supports your thesis?If it doesn’t, you’ll need to adjust either your evidence or your thesis.

YES/NO Have you double-checked your essay for proper grammar and spelling, and to make sure your ideas come across clearly?If you are not very confident in your writing, have you read your essay out loud to see if your sentences make sense as written?


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History Question

Political Behavior

News Journal Written Assignment:

News Journals require you to relate current events to the topics covered within POS 2041, American National Government. For this Journal you will select your own article. The article you select will determine your success on this Journal.

The article must be about Political Behavior (Elections, Political Parties, Public Opinion, Media, Interest Groups), and illustrate a concept discussed in the assigned chapters. The news article you select must itself be at least 4 paragraphs in length and come from a major, national news source.

For a list of sources and search possibilities please go to the Media tab, on the POS 2041 Lib page. You may also use the Internet (i.e. Google) to find a relevant article for this assignment. After reading the selected article and related chapters, address each of the following:

      1. Summary – Summarize in paragraph form the facts and issues presented in the article. Document the source of your information with a parenthetical reference, i.e. (Sanger and Broad 2019, para. 4).
      2. Application – Apply three or more concepts from the assigned chapter to the main ideas in the news article. Specifically explain how the material in your textbook is illustrated in the article you are examining. This can be accomplished by using examples from the article and terms or concepts found in the textbook. You must clearly define the concepts and provide in-text citations in the APA format, including the page numbers, i.e. (Krutz 2019, p. 15) for our textbook.
      3. Analysis – Conclude with an analysis and reflection of the issue that includes reasoning related to concepts within POS 2041 an analysis of the article perspective. Does the article present the issue in a way that influences as well as informs. Lastly, include your own observations of the issue, the actions of those involved or an anticipated outcome related to your understanding of the concepts covered within the course.

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    History Question

    The Islamic Golden Age occurred

    Group of answer choices

    Emperor Justinian is best remembered for his

    Group of answer choices

    The term caesaropapism refers to the fact that the Byzantine emperors

    Group of answer choices

    The people who finally brought down the Byzantine empire were

    Group of answer choices

    The Quran

    Group of answer choices

    The hajj

    Group of answer choices

    Upon Muhammad’s death, _________ served as the first caliph.

    Group of answer choices

    The pilgrimage to Mecca is the Pillar of Islam known as the _________.

    Group of answer choices

    The event that is the basis for the start of the Islamic calendar is the _________.

    Group of answer choices

    Known as the “Sleepless Emperor,” ________ married a common woman, developed law codes, and sponsored the building of the Hagia Sophia

    Group of answer choices

    The Popul Vuh concerned

    Group of answer choices

    The low sea levels during the ice ages

    Group of answer choices

    The Olmecs

    Group of answer choices

    The Maya calendar

    Group of answer choices

    Ethiopian Christians embraced a form of Christianity known as ___________, which argues that Christ had one nature

    Group of answer choices

    A famous trading center located in Mali that also housed a beautiful mosque that reflected the architectural styles of the Mediterranean world was _________.

    Group of answer choices

    Great Zimbabwe

    Group of answer choices

    In many areas of ancient Africa, elite women

    Group of answer choices

    Mansa Musa

    Group of answer choices

    Once considered the “mother” civilization of Mesoamerica, the earliest Meso-american civilization known as the __________ may have developed the rituals associated with bloodletting later used by the Maya, constructed huge basalt heads, and had a writing system

    Group of answer choices

    The African term ________ means “the people” and is used to describe the peoples who emerged from the savanna regions of Africa around 3000 B.C.

    Group of answer choices

    The Bantu

    Group of answer choices

    The Inca of South America

    Group of answer choices

    The Kingdom of Axum

    Group of answer choices

    The Kingdon of Kush

    Group of answer choices

    The Maya played a game known as ___________ in which the losers were sacrificed to the gods

    Group of answer choices

    The Swahili

    Group of answer choices

    The __________Dynasty of Ethiopia claimed descent from the Biblical King Solomon.

    Group of answer choices

    Traditionally, slavery in Africa

    Group of answer choices

    The tool kit of the early arrivals to the Americas is called

    Group of answer choices

    The Aztec people referred to themselves as the _________ people.

    Group of answer choices

    The practice of foot binding

    Group of answer choices

    Which of the following was not a major technological innovation developed in the Tang and Song Dynasties of China?

    Group of answer choices

    Fast-ripening rice

    Group of answer choices

    Muslims who believe that Ali and the descendants of Muhammad should rule Islam are known as ________.

    Traditional religions in Africa

    Group of answer choices

    Leaders in the Mayan city-states

    Group of answer choices


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    History Question

    What we are looking for: The trick with written question in a class is for the student to be rewarded for their ability to draw upon the class materials that they hopefully engaged in. Therefore, no matter how simple the question seems, the score is not just for a basic answer, but also using evidence from the class: documents, lectures and the text are all great (and the only allowed) sources to use.

    Formatting:

    • Please answer the question as you would a Green Book in class: use somewhere between three to four paragraphs (more are fine if needed). It is very doubtful that fewer than three paragraphs will have the evidence and argument needed to earn much of a score.
    • Single or double-space is fine.
    • Please do not ask for how many words your answer needs to be, this isn’t a basic writing course. The grade is for a quality answer, not for a robotic and formulaic answer.

    Basic Rubric:

    80-100% for a well written (or mostly well-written) answer that references lecture material especially as examples to prove any points being made.

    40-79 % for a answer that is fairly well written (some grammatical confusion and word use errors) and draws evidence mostly from the textbook, showing that the student may not have engaged in the lectures much, if at all.

    10-39% for an essay of any writing quality that uses fewer than one reference from any class materials at all, consisting mostly of a personal opinion as opposed to an evidence-based argument.

    0%: Answer is based upon one or more internet sources, is copied from another student, is copied from any source and not reworded into the student’s own writing and then cited.

    How to Cite for this short essay:

    For this essay, simply refer to the lecture, textbook page or class-document when it is used. The two simple ways to do this are:

    1. “According to the Marx assignment…………”

    and

    2.” The French Revolution impacted even the price of wool in India” (Lecture Week 4).

    And that is it!! Always cite any information you use from a source in your writing, even after you have put it into your own words. That is basic scholarship and very important to show one’s credibility.

    ———————————-

    Here is the fairly broadly written question, which is intended to allow the student to really choose a side and prove it (one could argue either way, on this one, so the points are not for picking the correct side, but for proving your side with your argument and evidence):

    Which had the greater long-term impact, the French Revolution or the Industrial Revolution? Illustrate with several examples from both events, using resources from lecture and the text. Cite your examples drawn from both resources (name the document, textbook page or lecture).


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    History Question

    Students must submit a research paper on how judges are selected in the Texas judiciary. Your paper must meet the following content, format and submission requirements : CONTENT REQUIREMENTS

    1. Identify and explain the current TEXAS law regarding the selection of most judges in Texas.

    2. Identify and explain at least two other types of judicial selection processes used in the U.S.

    3. Choose whichever judicial selection method you think is best and give at least two criteria explaining how and why you made your choice. Possible criteria include: impartiality/independence, accountability and competence of judges.

    4. Describe who may or may not benefit from the position you take in 3) above. Consider the impact on political parties, on justices and the individuals in the Texas court system. Also consider the impact in other areas, e.g., economic, political, social.

    5. List at least two things you could do in order to engage the political process in Texas in pursuit of your position in 3) above, be specific.

    6. Cite at least three (3) reliable, quality references within the body of the paper using the Chicago Manual of Style’s (Links to an external site.) parenthetical citation style. One of the citations MUST come from the class textbook (-10 points if this is not done). You must have at least three parenthetical citations in the body of the paper that correctly match the sources properly formatted in the Works Cited Page.

    A paper with no parenthetical source citations in its body will receive a grade of 0. A paper with no works cited section (a.k.a. list of references, a.k.a. bibliography) at the end of the body will receive a grade of 0.

    FORMAT REQUIREMENTS:

    7. Typed, 2-3 pages (not counting Works Cited Page), 12-point font, double-spaced (-25 if the paper is less than 2-3 pages).

    8. Your name, my name, POSC 2306, and the date (-5 if this is missing).

    9. A title is required, but a separate title page is not necessary.

    10. An introduction with a thesis/statement of purpose in the first paragraph: “This paper will…” (-10 if this is not done)

    11. A logically organized and sequenced body followed by a clearly stated conclusion.

    12. Use of the Chicago Manual of Style’s (Links to an external site.) parenthetical citation format. Students must be very careful and pay attention to details when they examine and cite internet sources.

    13. Use of footnotes or endnotes is prohibited (-20 if this is done).

    14. Using encyclopedias, like Wikipedia, Ballotpedia, history.com, kids.law.com, etc. is prohibited (-10 points).


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    History Question

    Final Exam

    1. Passage Identification: with your own words for each passage below identify the following things: 1) Name of text, 2) Author of text, 3) Context of passage, e.g. who is speaking to whom and why or what action is taking place immediately around this passage, and 4) Significance of the passage as it relates to the work in general.

    1. And I have known the eyes already, known them all—

    The eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase,

    And when I am formulated, sprawling on a pin,

    When I am pinned and wriggling on the wall,

    Then how should I begin

    To spit out all the butt-ends of my days and ways?

    And how should I presume?

    2. He was old, no doubt about it. There were wrinkles around his eyes and mouth. The faint carmine of his cheeks was rouge; the brown hair beneath the colorfully banded hat was a wig; his neck was shrunken and sinewy; his clipped mustache and goatee were dyed; the full yellowish set of teeth he exposed when he laughed was a cheap set of dentures; and his hands, bedecked with signet rings on both forefingers, were those of an old man. With a shudder [Name] watched his and his interaction with his friends.

    3. It occurred to him that what had appeared perfectly impossible before, namely that he had not spent his life as he should have done, might after all be true. It occurred to him that his scarcely perceptible attempts to struggle against what was considered good by the most highly placed people, those scarcely noticeable impulses which he had immediately suppressed, might have been the real thing, and all the rest false. And his professional duties and the whole arrangement of his life and of his family, and all his social and official interests, might all have been false. He tried to defend all those things to himself and suddenly felt the weakness of what he was defending. There was nothing to defend.

    4. An old pond—

    A frog leaps in,

    The sound of water

    2. Essay Question: Respond to both questions below in a longer-form essay. DO NOT use any websites or book citations . Your response will be graded on thoroughness and detail (10 pts. each)

    1. Many of the writers we have read during the second half of the semester (such as Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and T.S. Eliot) are concerned with the state of a continuously industrialized and detached society. Many of these authors, whether intentionally or unintentionally, show the consequences of a fragmented and indifferent culture or make appeals for justice, mercy, and understanding. Write an essay in which you explore how these authors address the dangers of human indifference and/or discuss how they make appeals for justice and love.

    2. We have spent a good deal of time this semester discussing the benefits of art and beauty as we see them in literary texts. By now, I hope you have developed some of your own views on why literature holds importance for our own humanity. Write an essay in which you describe what you deem as the value of literature using two of the texts we have read during the second half of this semester for support and/or examples. (the texts we have read: Zhang Ailing “Sealed Off,” Frederick Douglass, Leo Tolstoy “The Death of Ivan Ilyich”, Thomas Mann “Death in Venice”)


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    History Question

    Final Exam

    HIS 396: Drugs in U.S. History

    Summer II, 2021

    Keyword List

    Incorporate six of these key terms—two from each column—into an essay responding to one of the question prompts below.

    Column 1

    Column 2

    Column 3

    Dope pusher

    MK-Ultra

    Medellin cartel

    Narcotics Control Act (1956)

    60s Counterculture (hippies)

    MDMA (ecstasy)

    Knapp Commission (1970-72)

    Vietnam War

    Voice Bank

    Bebop (jazz)

    Charles Manson

    Acid house parties

    Timothy Leary

    Richard Nixon

    Crack scare

    underground press (UPS)

    “Just Say No.”

    Mass incarceration

    Essay Prompts – Choose One Question

    Write an essay (around 1000-1400 words) responding to one of the prompts below. In your essay, you must incorporate six keywords from the list above (two terms from each column). In the course of your essay place each keyword in its historical context and explain its significance to the topic you chose to write about (based on the essay prompts below). You are, of course, welcome (even encouraged) to incorporate other people, concepts, and events in your essay as well; just make sure to include at least two of the key terms from each column. Online reference sources may provide relevant facts and details about the term, so feel free to use them for this purpose; just make sure that you also explain the significance of each term in relation to the course readings, discussions, and Prezi lectures.

    1. Examine the development and impact of the War on Drugs since WWII. How have certain people, ideas, and concerns contributed to the escalation of drug control policies? For example, how did drug myths or media attention shape perceptions of drugs and, by extension, influence or inspire stricter drug control laws? Who has the War on Drugsbenefitted, and who has it injured? Consider, for example, howgroups like drug users and dealers, police and politicians, urban minorities, or suburban whites have fared under drug prohibition laws. In what ways have drug users resisted or adapted to criminalization culturally, politically, or economically?

    2. Examine how drugs have enriched and inspired as well as injured or corrupted youth subcultures since WWII. You may consider, for example, how marijuana and heroin figured in the jazz scene; how hallucinogens influenced the Sixties counterculture; and the impact of ecstasy on the British acid house scene. In your response, consider how “set and setting” (including particular social spaces as well as the wider historical context) shaped the meanings and uses of drugs in each subculture. What benefits did these subcultures ascribe to particular drugs? What problems—whether real or imagined—did these drugs pose for youth cultures or other drug users of their generation? For example, you might consider problems associated with the illicit drug trade, addiction, or criminalization.

    1


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    History Question

    This semester you have an opportunity to earn 20 extra credit points through a Family History project in which you will collect “oral history” data and use it to write an essay. What is oral history? Oral history is a direct account of historical events as told by a person who participated in or witnessed the event(s). The main tool for conducting oral history is the interview.

    The assignment:
    • Find someone willing to be interviewed about an historical time period or event in American history (or other history if you have family from a foreign country). A family member is the best source, but you can interview anyone of an older generation if you choose. This may be done in person or over the phone, though an in-person interview is recommended. You may also find it helpful to record your interview session, as long as your interviewee is comfortable.
    • Next, ask a series of questions to get your subject to talk about his or her experiences of the time period or event in question. You may find that this person has one event or story in particular s/he wishes to talk about—let her/him, as it may mark an important life experience.
    • Some questions to consider: Where did you grow up? How old were you at the time of the event? What class, race, or gender categories may have affected the person’s viewpoint of the event? How significant do you think the time period was? How did it affect your life or the lives of others? How did this even contribute to the shaping of America as a country? Any lasting effects you can see? You might think of other questions to ask as you go along in the interview.
    • After the interview, collect your notes. It’s time to write this down!
    • For 20 points extra credit, write a short essay, 2-3 pages (at least 2 full!), describing the person you interviewed and her/his experience. As you are now the historian, you may use their interview to interpret the time period or event in question. How do you better understand the event/time period after the interview? What opinions or biases did the person you interviewed lend to the time period or event in question? What new perspective did you gain? How did this interview help you to better understand American history?
    • To receive up to 20 points of extra credit, please turn in your paper by the date of the final exam.

    Possible Topics you may want to consider:
    • The Great Depression, the New Deal, Franklin Roosevelt
    • WWII, the Civil Rights Movement
    • The Cold War, anti-communism, the “nuclear age,” life in the 1950s
    • The 1960s: social reform, social radicalism, feminism, the Vietnam War
    • The 1970s: Watergate/Nixon, the energy crisis, rise of conservatism
    • The 1980s: Ronald Reagan, ending of the Cold War
    • The 1990s: George H.W. Bush, the Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm)


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    History Question

    This Writing Assignment asks you to think about the way in which ordinary Americans experienced historical events. It will require you to look at the way people reacted or responded to people, places, and events encountered as part of their daily lives. Some questions to consider: What was life like during the time period in question? How did a person’s race, class, or gender affect the way in which he/she experienced it? In this writing assignment, you will imagine that you are living in the past in the conditions or circumstances specified in the particular assignment (listed below). Write a 2-3 page account as if you were an actor in this historical time period, being sure to use first person (“I” or “we”). Make sure to identify yourself (what is your race/class/gender) as it pertains to the assignment and describe how you would experience the event in question. Make sure to reference the textbook or use facts from our discussion threads so that you can incorporate the necessary details and accuracy.

    Choose one of the following prompts:

    #1: Pre-revolutionary America
    This prompt asks you to think about reasons why colonists decided to rebel against the British Empire in the 1760s and 1770s. For this assignment, imagine that you are a colonist living in the city of Boston. Using your notes and facts from the textbook and discussion threads, explain why you think the colonies (or Massachusetts in particular) are being treated unfairly by Parliament. Make sure to point out at least 3 reasons that highlight this viewpoint—3 separate events or happenings that highlight the problem that you and your fellow colonists have with British rule. How would you, as a colonist, help with the efforts to resist Parliament’s arbitrary authority? (This will differ depending upon what gender you are pretending to be—you can be either). List at least one thing that you could do to help the patriots in their goal to resist the British Empire and/or eventually work towards independence.

    #2: Westward Expansion
    This prompt asks you to think about what it must have been like to be a settler from the eastern U.S. traveling to a new territory added to the United States in the 1830s-1850s. For this assignment, imagine you are an American settler traveling West for a better opportunity. You may choose Oregon, California, Texas, or Utah as your destination, and you can be from either the North or South. Write a letter to your friend explaining: your reasons for leaving (where are you from?), with whom you are traveling, where you will settle, what difficulties your journey might have in store for you, and what you plan to do once you find a place to settle. Also discuss your view on the subject of slavery—should it be allowed in the territory you wish to settle in? Why or why not?

    Guidelines: The assignment must be typed and be at least 2 full pages—if half of the first page is taken up with your name and the assignment title, then it will need to wrap around onto a third page. Please use 12 point font (Times New Roman or similar), double spaced lines, and standard Word page set-up. Proper grammar/spelling is required to earn full points, so make sure you review what you’ve written before printing it out. Late papers will be subject to a reduction in grade by 10% for each day that it is late, and no assignments will be accepted after 10 days.


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    History Question

    You will need to select a song from the list below:

    • “If I Had a Hammer” – Pete Seeger (1949)
    • “I’ve Been ‘Buked and I’ve Been Scorned” – Mahalia Jackson at the March on Washington (1963)
    • “This Little Light of Mine” – Various Artists and Performances (1950s and 1960s)
    • “Keep Your Eyes on the Prize” – Various Artists and Performances (1956)
    • “Get Your Rights Jack” – C.O.R.E Freedom Singers (early 1960s)
    • “We Shall Overcome” – Various Artists and Performances (consider Joan Baez’s version, 1963)
    • “Blowin’ in the Wind” – Bob Dylan (1963)
    • “A Change is Gonna Come” – Sam Cooke (1964)
    • “Here’s to the State of Mississippi” – Phil Ochs (1964)
    • “Nowhere to Run” – Martha and the Vandellas (1965)
    • “Rescue Me” – Fontella Bass (1965)
    • “I Wish I Knew How it Would Feel to be Free” – Nina Simone (1967)
    • “At Last” – Etta James
    • “Alabama”- John Coltrane (1963)
    • “Mississippi Goddamn”-Nina Simone (1964)
    • “Strange Fruit”-Billie Holiday (1959)

    Instructions
    1. Find a sound clip of the song online. Listen to it and save a copy of it.
    2. Research the background of the song online (who wrote the song, what was the song about, why was the song written, etc.)
    3. Find the lyrics and paste them into a Word document
    4. Below the printed lyrics, you will provide a detail summary & analysis in a five-paragraph essay.
    a. Introduction-Provide background and a brief description of the song, tie the song into historical events or trends. How does this song relate to Civil Rights?
    b. Paragraph two-Interpret the meaning of the song and how it was used to convey a message. Give examples of specific lyrics and their meaning (cite Chicago style) What Civil Rights themes appear in the lyrics? How did the song play an active role in the movement if so? Where did the song actively appear in protests of the early 1960s?
    c. Paragraph three-Consider the intended audience of the song. Evaluate who might benefit from listening to the song. Explain what knowledge the listener needs to fully understand and appreciate the song. Use evidence from the lyrics as well as other relevant resources to support your analysis. (cite Chicago style)
    d. Paragraph four-Consider the viewpoints addressed in the song. What views of the world is the song presenting? What view of the world and/or values does the artist assume the listener holds? Use evidence from song.
    e. Conclusion-Discuss your reaction to the song, your thoughts on the musical and lyrical presentation of the song, etc. In what ways did protesters and civil rights advocates utilize this song? Are there any related songs that deal with the same subject matter? How are they the same or different? Describe a song that has been released in the last ten years that you feel has the same impact for an event or cultural period.


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    History Question

    The core assignment of this course is a documented research paper (1500-2000 words in length, approx. 6-8 pages double-spaced, 12-point font).

    • The paper should support a thesis statement with information gained from research or investigation.
    • The paper will not be just a report presenting information but will be a paper that carefully examines and presents your own historical interpretation of the topic you have chosen and your interpretation of the information you have gathered.
    • The paper may include consideration of problems and solutions, definition of key terms, or may refute arguments against your thesis statement.

    It will be important to choose a topic of interest to you.

    • Approach this assignment with an open and skeptical mind, then form an opinion based on what you have discovered.
    • You must suspend beliefs while you are investigating and let the discoveries shape your opinion. (This is a thesis-finding approach.)
    • Once you have found your thesis, write the paper to support it.

    You will use some of the following critical thinking skills in this process:

    1. Choosing an appropriate topic, limiting the topic.
    2. Gathering information, summarizing sources.
    3. Analyzing and evaluating sources.
    4. Defining key terms.
    5. Synthesizing information, comparing and contrasting sources.
    6. Testing a thesis, making a historical argument, using refutation.
    7. Amassing support for a position.
    8. Documenting sources.

    Because this may be a longer paper than you have written before and a complex process is involved, it is recommended that you complete this paper using the following steps:

    1. Choose a topic related to U.S. History up to 1877 (Chapters 1-15) that you would truly like to explore and that you are willing to spend some time on. Your chosen topic should be focused. Don’t try to take on some huge topic. For example, “Slavery in America” or “The American Revolution” are enormous with many issues involved. Where does it stop? Instead look at a specific aspect of slavery or the Revolution, at a specific moment. Pose a question that you really want to answer. You may want to begin with more than one topic in mind.

    2. Do some preliminary reading on the topic(s). You may begin with the textbook, then further explore the information available. Refine your topic. Summarize your topic, your interest in the topic, the questions you want to answer, and a hypothesis you want to test. This is not a summary of some issue, idea, or event. This cannot be a biography though you could select an issue, event, or idea from some historical figure.

    3. Gather information from a variety of sources. Use a minimum of four sources for your paper, and at least one must be a primary source. You cannot use a text book, wikipedia, encyclopedia, or documentary as a source.

    1. Examples of primary sources are ones that are used in our discussion forums 2-8. None of the sources used for this course can be used for your paper.
    2. They are sources that are contemporary to the times under investigation.
    3. An example of a secondary source is a monograph, that is, the book or article focuses on an issue, idea, or event. The Journal of American History is an example of an academic journal.

    4. Outline the results of your research and the plan for your paper (you are not required to submit the outline).

    5. Write the final draft and be sure to include a Works Cited List, and use the correct MLA documentation style.

    Grade Rubric

    INTRODUCTION & THESIS: Includes a clear thesis statement, an assertion or position. Topic is original and manageable in a short research paper. /15

    FOCUS AND DEVELOPMENT: Body of the essay focuses on this thesis and develops it fully, recognizing the complexity of issues and refuting arguments in opposition to the thesis. /20

    SUPPORT AND SYNTHESIS: Uses sufficient and relevant evidence to support the thesis (and primary points), including facts, inferences, and judgments. Quotes, summarizes, and paraphrases accurately and effectively–appropriately introducing and explaining each quote. /25

    RESOURCES: Shows a clear understanding of the sources; has evaluated each source and used it appropriately. Uses a wide variety of sources reflecting significant research. /10

    CONVENTIONS: Uses MLA format correctly; includes internal citations and a Works Cited list; is free of errors. /15

    CORRECTNESS AND STYLE: Introduces the topic in an interesting way; shows critical thinking and depth of understanding; uses appropriate tone; shows sophistication in language usage and sentence structure. /15

    TOTAL: /100


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    History Question

    Below are six questions that cover the major topics and aspects of our course thus far. In a 1200-1600-word (approximately 4 ½ – 6-pages) essay, answer the question you feel you can best support through readings and lecture. Be sure to answer all parts of the question using a variety of course material (including, but certainly not limited to, lecture). While a “works cited” page is not necessary, proper citation of your sources with footnotes or endnotes is critical (this is how historians not only show their evidence for claims, but allow a reader to follow up on an aspect he or she may find interesting).1 Be sure to give your paper a title that is something beyond “Paper 1” or “History Midterm Paper.” A title should give your reader some idea about what your topic is. (Imagine picking up a book titled “Book Number Three”–would you want to read that?) Your paper should be double-spaced, use a 12-point font, and have 1” margins all around. To cite lecture, use “Henry Maar, Lecture [number/title].” All the questions can be answered using available course material (including the primary sources from The American Yawp).You may use outside sources, but be certain those outside sources are credible; likewise, be certain to cite them appropriately, giving the name, title of the publication, and the source (book, journal, or website if found on the internet). The exam is due on Canvas by 11:59PM on Oct. 21. There is no class on Oct. 14, so you will have two weeks to work on the paper. No late papers will be accepted without documented medical or familial emergency. I am available to consult on papers both via email and over Zoom. Likewise, the CSUN History Department has tutors available via the Michael Patterson History Writing Center. If you wish to schedule an appointment with a tutor, call 818-677-3566.1) The Era of Reconstruction is sometimes called “Radical Reconstruction.” What was Reconstruction about and what was so “radical” about it? What brought about the end of Reconstruction, and in what ways did life for African Americans in the so-called “New South” change in the years to come?2) Compare and contrast the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era. From politics to culture, economics and the role of labor, discuss the events or features that define these two related periods. What distinguishes one period from the other? (Where does one end and the other begin?) Be sure to discuss the differences between the Populists, the Progressives, and the Socialists. 3) In 1886, the United States unveiled a new statue in New York Harbor: The Statue of Liberty. On the pedestal of this gift, the inscription reads, “give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” It would be the first site most immigrants would see upon arrival to the United States. What factors drove immigration to the United States between 1880 and 1920? What groups immigrated over and from what parts of the world? What difficulties did immigrants encounter (language or otherwise) in the United States between (approximately) 1880 and 1920?1 This is a footnote. For more on how to place footnotes see:

    4) In 1898 the United States declared war on Spain over the status of Cuba (officially). Many Americans, however, objected believing the United States was acting as an “empire.” Who were these critics of the Spanish-American War, and what were their objections? Do you think the United States acted as an empire between the period (approximately) 1898 – 1917 (perhaps beyond that)? Be sure to consider the defining features of an empire and whether the US constitutes such.5) In 1920, the United States passed the 19th Amendment securing women the right to vote. Discuss the changing role of women, from approximately 1910 – 1945 (a period ranging from the suffragist movement through the end of World War II). In what ways did women’s role in society change in these years? What gains did they make and what setbacks did they continue to face? 6) At the end of World War II, the United States and Soviet Union emerged as victors in a war over fascism and Nazism. Within a year, however, the Untied States and the Soviet Union became bitter antagonists overseeing a global Cold War. What were the origins of this new rivalry (what factors contributed to it)? Had President Roosevelt survived (or if the Democratic Party nominated Henry Wallace), could the Cold War have been avoided, or was the relationship between the US and the Soviets during WWII only a marriage of convenience against a common enemy?


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    History Question

    Answer 4 of the the following 6 questions clearly and concisely. 2 pages per answer (per questions).

    Needs to have diverse sentence types with flow, perfect grammar/spelling, transitions, MLA formatted essay, and great vocabulary.

    Thesis goes at the end of intro paragraph. Needs structure!! Intro paragraph needs to show the structure of the essay!

    Each paragraph needs 6 sentences at the least. Intro need to be more of an outline of how the essay will go. No phrases such as “In this response” and “This” …etc. Transitional topic sentence from paragraph to paragraph and concluding sentences.

    Number in accordance to the essays you choose.

    1. What factors may have led to the Mexican American War (1846-1848) and what were the legacies and consequences of that war?

    2. Describe the Period of the Antebellum. What were some of the main grievances or calls for charters of reform that were debated during this period?

    3. Discuss “Jacksonian Democracy” and some of the legacies and consequences President Andrew Jackson drew and left behind by the end of his Presidency.

    4. The “Know Nothings” were a nativist political party movement in the United States in the mid-1850s who used also used “Native American Party” to describe themselves. Two other major parties dominated the political landscape: the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans. Describe the origins of these parties and their impact on American Society during the period of the Antebellum.

    5. Discuss notable people or individuals who contributed to the Abolitionist debate either in speeches or print press columns. Consider people like Abbey Kelly, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglas, William Lloyd Garrison, Stephen Douglas, and Abraham Lincoln or other persons and events you feel were important to the debate on freedom and the vision for America.

    6. Discuss the impact “Manifest Destiny” had on American Society in the 19th Century and what it meant for freedom.


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    History Question

    is open book and open notes, however, in answering these questions, you

    should draw on only the assigned readings and not any outside sources from the

    internet or elsewhere.

    Since you have nine days to complete this assignment, please avoid just typing

    whatever comes to mind and submitting the result. Give some thought to how you might

    construct a coherent, well-organized argument that is grounded in a close reading and

    understanding of the assigned reading. More importantly, make certain that every

    sentence of your response actually addresses and answers the question.

    Your answers will be graded on the following criteria:

    1) focus (does your answer have a thesis statement and does it answer the

    question asked?)

    2) evidence (do you back up your argument adequately with specific information

    from the reading?)

    3) coherence (does your answer, as written, make sense? Is your writing clear

    enough for the reader to understand what you are trying to say?)

    4) scope (does your answer deal with the question in appropriate depth and

    breadth?)

    Length of the assignment:

    The total length of all three answers should not exceed 1800 words and must be no

    less than 1500 words. Each answer, therefore, should be between 500 and 600 words.

    Due Date:

    Any time before Tuesday, May 18th at 7:30 pm. Email your completed exam to me as

    a Word doc attachment.

    The Questions:

    Answer question #1 and question #2.

    1. In To the Promised Land, the historian Michael Honey praises Martin Luther

    King’s efforts to create a coalition of labor and civil rights activists that would fight

    not only to end segregation but also to achieve human rights and economic

    justice. Ultimately, this coalition proved exceedingly difficult to construct and

    maintain. Why was this the case? Why did labor unions and civil rights activists

    find it so difficult to come together and to stay together?

    [Since there are numerous reasons that explain the fragility of the labor-civil

    rights coalition – ranging from cold war anticommunism to white working-class

    racism – a thorough answer must discuss more than one or two reasons. The

    key to a successful response is to present an organized argument that clearly

    explains how each reason contributed to weakening the labor-civil rights

    coalition.]

    2. In The New Jim Crow, Michelle Alexander argues that the mass incarceration of

    African Americans has become the “new” Jim Crow – a system that preserves

    white supremacy by relegating many blacks to a “caste” from which they cannot

    escape. Explain – as thoroughly as you can – how Alexander constructs her case

    for this argument. What evidence does she introduce to support her thesis?

    [In answering, consider the following: What role did the federal government’s

    launching of the “War on Drugs” play? How have Supreme Court rulings

    contributed to the new Jim Crow? How have changes in policing and the

    prosecution of drug-related offenses led to mass incarceration? How did the

    “colorblind” rhetoric of “law and order” – ultimately embraced by both political

    parties – facilitate (and make acceptable) the rise of the new Jim Crow?]

    Answer ONE (and only one) of the following questions:

    3. Drawing on Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law, explain how the U.S.

    government used legal methods to ensure the continued racial segregation of

    America throughout the twentieth century. In particular, show how government

    laws and regulations – from the financing of mortgages to zoning and public

    housing construction – perpetuated residential segregation and, in some cases,

    transformed integrated neighborhoods into segregated ones.

    [In answering, be sure to demonstrate clearly how specific steps taken by the

    government produced or enforced racial segregation. Rather than simply assert

    that a certain law or regulation produced racial segregation, explain how the

    process worked.]

    4. Why does Michelle Alexander believe that mass incarceration is a more pressing

    and significant problem for civil rights activists to confront than defending

    affirmative action or promoting diversity? Why, in her opinion, is it time to give up

    “racial bribes” and “the fierce defense of policies and strategies that exacerbate

    racial tensions and produce for racially defined groups primarily psychological or

    cosmetic racial benefits”? (p. 257)

    [Alexander makes clear the significance of mass incarceration throughout her

    book. In answering this question, however, it will be most useful to focus on the

    specific arguments she makes in chapter 6.]

    5. Why is Anne Moody critical of Martin Luther King, Jr.? Why is she skeptical of

    MLK’s commitment to non-violent resistance? Drawing on what Michael Honey’s

    book has to say about King’s philosophy and strategy, do you agree with

    Moody’s criticisms or are they unpersuasive? Explain and support your position.

    [The key to a successful essay is providing specific evidence from each book to

    make your case. Evaluate what Moody has to say about King in light of Honey’s

    positive assessment of MLK’s non-violent philosophy. Does Honey’s book

    undermine Moody’s case against King or do her critiques still seem valid?]


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    History Question

    This assignment is an example of a metacognitive essay. Metacognition refers to one’s awareness of the how one thinks. I am asking you to think about your thinking in this essay, to analyze how your thinking processes impact your approach to the material and assignments, and finally how this course may have shaped your thinking about connections between the past and the present. Do not hesitate to contact me if you have questions about this essay while you are working on it.

    Format:

    The essay must be 2-3 pages in length (1-inch margins, 12-point font, double spaced). The areas noted below – reflecting on your learning and reflecting on history – must both be addressed in the reflection. The organization is up to you. You may write one section focused on reflecting on your learning and a second on reflecting on history. You may also organize your thoughts in whatever way works best for you. You should address the specific questions in each section in some way in the reflection. The essay should not simply be a list of responses to each question. It is an essay that should have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. You must reference at least 3 specific assignments you completed in the course in your discussion of “reflecting on your learning” to illustrate or support your conclusions. See the grading rubric for specific information about grading criteria.

    Address the following in your reflective essay:

    Reflecting on Your Learning – What have you learned about how you learn?:

    Look through the discussions and essays you have completed during this course. Which assignments were most helpful for your learning? Which were less helpful? Which intellectual tasks required of you in this course – summarizing information, analyzing primary source documents, drawing your own conclusions, taking a position, supporting a position with evidence – did you find most challenging or difficult? Why do you think that is? How do you think your ability to engage in these kinds of intellectual tasks has changed over the course?

    Reflecting on History – What have you learned about history and the connection between the Industrial Revolution, cities, and urban life?:

    If you were asked to describe European cities before and after industrialization at the beginning of this class and again at the end of the course, how would your descriptions differ? How has your understanding of the industrial revolution in Europe and its relationship to European cities changed over the course? In this class, we have focused on the transformation of the physical environment of the European city and its relationship to the development of modern European society and culture. How has what you have learned about that relationship (between physical space and the society and culture) in this class shaped your perception of the world around you and your view of a contemporary city today?


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    History Question

    Historiographical Essay: In this assignment, you will write a historiographical essay based on a survey of eight or more of the secondary sources you found in the Library Project (Searching Exercise).

    Think of historiography as akin to geography. As geography is a survey of the landscape, so historiography is a survey of what historians have said on your topic.

    This paper must be a survey of the secondary source materials related to the topic of your own major research paper. Every field observes the practice of a survey of secondary sources. In some fields, this is called the literature review. In our field, this practice is called Historiography. See the Historiography reading in the Week 6 Readings.

    The goal of a historiographical essay is to show what others have argued about your topic. You must develop a new approach for your own research paper, so a survey of what others have written about your topic is crucial to establishing what is new about your research. This assignment should be about 1,500 to 2,000 words long (six to eight pages).

    You need to produce an overview of what other historians have written about your topic.

    • What were their theses (not your thesis)?
    • What were their main arguments?
    • What sources did they examine and how did that influence their arguments?

    Your Historiographical Essay should be about 6 to 8 pages long. All of the secondary sources you summarize must be cited with endnotes (not footnotes). You may expand your Historiographical Essay to as long as eight pages, but no longer than eight full double spaced pages. I want you to be able to plug your Historiographical Essay into your final paper in History 495 as your historiography section.

    By doing a Historiographical Essay, you learn what other historians’ have argued about your topic, which will help you avoid simply repeating what has already been said. You will then better understand how your thesis adds to our examination of your topic. Are you taking a new approach, using new sources, and/or a new focus? After doing your Historiographical Essay, you should have gained a basic understanding of how your paper is adding something unique because you have seen what other historians have argued about your topic (and related topics).

    Here is what should not be in your Historiographical Essay.:

    • Do not put forward your argument about the subject at all. Historiography is about what other scholars have written about your topic. This paper is to show the reader what other scholars have argued about your topic. It is not your argument.
    • Do not include your assessment of other scholars’ arguments. You should only tell what they have argued, not critique their arguments or challenge their assumptions. You will be doing that later in your HIST 495 paper.
    • Do not include primary sources. This is not a mini-version of your capstone paper.

    Nowhere in your Historiographical Essay should you indicate what your arguments are. Do not put your own thesis of your paper. You will write your own paper with your argument and primary sources research in History 495.

    Instead the goal of this assignment is to learn what other historians have written about your topic. This will give you a solid idea of what has already been written about your topic. This allows you to see where your ideas will fit in to what has already been written about your topic. If you have any questions about what should or shouldn’t be in your Historiographical Essay ask me.

    In organizing your Historiographical Essay, you should introduce your topic and the general arguments you found about your topic by other historians in the first paragraph (the thesis paragraph). Again, do not describe your views about the topic. Then try to organize your paper around the different interpretations you have found. You will need a thesis paragraph in which you give an overview of what other historians have argued about your topic. Then summarize each secondary source. You can do that by devoting one paragraph to a summary of each secondary source. In your summary of each secondary source include the author’s name, the title of their work, their thesis, their main supporting points, and the sources they used. Then finish with a conclusion paragraph that sums up the major arguments you have just summarized in your supporting points.

    When you write your final paper in History 495, you will take your Historiographical Essay and use it as your historiography section. You can correct any errors that I noted when I grade your Historiographical Essay and simply insert it into your final History 495 paper. The reader can then see what others have argued about your topic from your historiography section. They can then see what existing interpretations you are arguing against or how your ideas are new compared to what has already been written about your topic. Having a historiography section allows the reader to compare your approach/argument with others who have looked at the same or similar topics so that they can understand what is new about your project.

    Here are two example Historiographical Papers. Note how they just summarize what other historians have argued about the author’s topic rather than putting forward the author’s argument (also note how they are not term papers): Circleville Massacre, A Tragic Incident in the Black Hawk War | History to Go (utah.gov)

    Editorial: Little known Circleville Massacre is very much worth remembering – The Salt Lake Tribune (sltrib.com) The Circleville Massacre · Utah Stories from the Beehive Archive (utahhumanities.org)

    New monument to honor Paiutes slain in Circleville Massacre – Deseret News


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    History Question

    NOTE: THERE IS NO LATE WORK ON THIS ASSIGNMENT.

    The assignment may be submitted through 11:59 PM on Friday, May 7th. After that the assignment cannot be submitted for credit as Canvas ends the semester on Friday. Do not wait until the last minute to submit.

    Any exams submitted by 11:59 PM on Wednesday, May 5rd, will receive 5 bonus points. Do not rush to meet this deadline. If you exam is done and it’s you’re best work, submit it, otherwise take the full time to complete it.

    Part One – Answer ONE of the following

    1. In what ways is the Tulsa Race Massacre a legacy of World War I? Consider not only the ways the war changed Tulsa and Greenwood but also the larger issues of race relations during World War I and the early 1920s.

    2. FDR’s New Deal did not resolve the crisis of the Great Depression, yet his policies remain some of the most significant in American history. Discuss the evolution of FDR’s New Deal programs and explain the significance of the New Deal that was implemented over the decade.

    3. Taking broadly the idea of civil rights in the post-World War II era, explain why some historians have taken to calling it a “Second Reconstruction.” Your answer should consider policies and events of the civil rights era and how they compared to the post-Civil War Reconstruction.

    4. What were the major issues that contributed to the rise of the conservative movement beginning in the 1960s and culminating in the “Reagan Revolution”? In the end how revolutionary was Reagan’s tenure in office compared to what conservatives envisioned at the start of his presidency?

    Part Two – Answer the Following

    Answer the following essay using evidence from throughout the class this semester. A successful essay will provide an overarching argument that pulls in material from the three main historical sections of the course (Pre-1800, 1800s, 1900-Present).

    1. Democratic politician Hubert Humphrey once said “Freedom is hammered out on the anvil of discussion, dissent, and debate.” Assess this quote using a theme of history that showcases how dissenting voices influenced American life in all capacities. Furthermore, explain what can we learn by studying these dissenting voices.

    Guidelines

    Each essay should be between 500 and 1000 words excluding citations (so the full assignment is 1000-2000 words in length, roughly 4-8 double-spaced pages). These are general guidelines to give you an idea about where you should be, you should not write your responses simply to meet a certain length. Simply meeting the minimum requirement will not earn you an A on the exam. In the same manner writing 1000 words on each essay could still result in a low grade. Your grade will be determined based on the content rather than length of your responses.

    Please use standard formatting (1 inch margins, 12 point Times New Roman font, double-spacing) for your submission.

    You are free to use any course materials for the exams, however no outside sources are allowed; use of outside sources will result in an automatic F on the assignment. Make sure you cite anything that would need a citation. The important thing to remember is this exam is not about summarizing the course materials. You need to construct your own thesis-driven responses that demonstrate you’ve comprehended the material and can analyze it in your own words. Quoting the textbook material throughout the exam will not accomplish this, so make sure your response is substantially your own words.

    Note: As with the midterm, this assignment needs to be completed independent of feedback from either I or your grader. If you have questions about formatting or other issues unrelated to contact please contact us. However we will not review exam drafts or provide detailed content help while the exam is open.

    Late Work

    I have purposefully given you a week to submit this assignment to avoid technology related issues that may crop up with a standard timed exam. Because you have a week to complete this exam, late assignments for full credit will only be accepted for medical issues or extreme circumstances and you will need to contact me to get an extension. Because they cannot be adequately documented and because of the week you have to submit it, extensions for full credit will not be granted for technology related issues that happen at the last minute. Do not wait until 11:58PM to submit your assignment.

    Footnotes

    Any directly quoted material, un-quoted non-common knowledge or material pulled from the textbook needs to be cited on the exam. You need to use formal foonotes on this assignment. In-text citations are not allowed.

    Every word processor has an insert footnote function that you need to use when creating citations. Microsoft Word’s is under the references tab in the toolbar while both Apple Pages and Google Docs put the footnote function under the Insert tab in the toolbar.

    You do not need a works cited/bibliography page.

    Do not try and create your own footnotes manually in the footer of the document. This will not work and will result in losing points for citations on your paper. Talk to your grader or Dr. Eberle if you need help.

    If you cite the textbook, the footnotes can be simply “Foner, page number.” (minus quotes) If you cite any of the primary source documents with the Norton Mix, cite them as: Full Author Name, “Document Title”. Lecture notes can be cited in your footnotes as “Lecture Notes, Date.” Make sure to provide page numbers, citations will not be counted if they lack page numbers for reference checks.


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    History Question

    Please chose one of the topics from each group and write a 6-7 paragraph detailed essay on it. Please include specific dates and a majority of events during the topic’s time period. Create a timeline at the bottom of the essay that shows what dates or events are included in the essay as well. The font must be Times New Roman, and all must be double spaced 12 font size. Please be as specifically detailed and include as many events as possible while still answering the essay prompt. An example of an essay, with teacher revisions are included but I want you to answer a question from Group 1 and Group 2. Please do not do anything with the example essay and it’s annotations it is just for reference on what I need my essays to look like.

    Copy Pasted Directions: (from assignment itself)

    Please read the following essay topics and, in no less than six paragraphs each, write a thoughtful and well-reasoned response to one question from each group. Please indicate the questions you choose to answer. Do not worry about proper citation, as I do not expect you to do any outside research for this exam, but please do indicate a source and page number if you make use of any direct quotes. Remember to read the Term Paper Guidelines in your syllabus and follow the rules for writing found therein. Also, remember that you need a minimum of six paragraphs per essay, and each paragraph should be 6-7 sentences with a clear topic sentence and historical evidence given as support.

    Group One

    1. Was the dropping of atomic bombs on the Japanese to end World War Two necessary? Was it ethical?
    2. To what extent did the Cold War impact American society and politics in the immediate postwar world? Did the Cold War have a greater effect on American foreign policy or domestic life?
    3. What changes have been brought to American society and culture by the end of the Cold War? Is the country better off now, or was it better back in the USSR(‘s days)?
    4. An African-American president was elected in 2008. What would W.E.B. Du Bois say about this development, and how does it speak to changes in American society and culture over the course of the twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries?

    Group Two

    1. How do cultural texts like protest songs better allow students and scholars to understand the Vietnam War? Cite specific examples of how these texts shed light on the major issues of the era.
    2. Discuss the racial and gender issues in mid-century America as seen through the eyes of Audre Lorde in Zami. How does her experience help to better contextualize the civil rights movement?
    3. Lizabeth Cohen’s A Consumer’s Republic describes the role of consumption in the development of modern America. What was Cohen’s thesis, did she adequately proves her point, and what methodology did she use to do so?

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