HIS 40C UCLA Wk 5 Black and C

QUESTIONS: 

  • This week, we have seen Black and Chicano cultural nationalisms in the 1960s. Please answer ONE of the following questions:
  • 1) How did Black and Chicano nationalists define and pursue self-determination? To support your arguments, please cite and discuss two concrete examples from the course readings, one from Black Power and another from Chicano Movement. You are also welcome to bring class materials from the past modules, to discuss these movements’ historical trajectories.

2) What were the roles and contributions of students in constructing social movements in the 1960s? To support your arguments, please cite and discuss two concrete examples from the course readings, one from Black Power and another from Chicano Movement.

  • 3) What are some potentials and limitations of radical movements in comparison to legislative reforms in the 1960s? To support your arguments, please cite and discuss two concrete examples from the course readings, one from Black Power and another from Chicano Movement.

Post 1

1. According to the lecture, Malcolm X was an African American leader in the civil rights movement, minister and supporter of Black nationalism. He urged his fellow Black Americans to protect themselves against white aggression “by any means necessary,” a stance that often put him at odds with the nonviolent teachings of Martin Luther King, Jr. His charisma and oratory skills helped him achieve national prominence in the Nation of Islam, a belief system that merged Islam with Black nationalism. In the speech “The Ballot or the Bullet”, Malcolm X stated that Africa Americans suffered from “political oppression at the hands of the white man, economic exploitation at the hands of the white man, and social degradation at the hands of the white man” (X, 1), and Malcolm X urged the black community to pursue the self-determination, which is being socially and politically independent, and fight against oppressors even some of the actions were violent. Malcolm X also stated that the old civil rights “excluded” black community and therefore, the black community should give it a new interpretation, which will “enable us [black community] to come into it, take part in it” (X,1). Other black nationalists have also defined the black self-determination in a similar way. For example, according to the primary document “The Black Panther Party Ten-Point Program” from Back Past, the black panther party encouraged the Africa Americans to fight for their dignity and respect in the United States, and the ten-point program created by the black panther party includes “freedom for all black people, full employment for Africa Americans, end of the robbery by Capitalists, decent housing and shelters for black people who might need it, guaranteed education, exemption from military service, end of police brutality, justice for black people who were in prison and brought to the courts” (Black Past, 1). Based on the article “Those Times of Revolution”, Ernesto Chavez states that Chicanismo was the vehicle used to express Chicano nationalism, which is best understood as a “protonationalism”, since it is based on “the consciousness of belonging to or having belonged to a lasting political entity” (Chavez, 5). Moreover, Ernesto Chavez says that the Chicano movement in general has not been fully recognized by the American society and its influence is not as big as that of the black power movement. Therefore, Ernesto Chavez encourages the Latino community to actively pursue the Chicano self-determination and make the Chicano movement as a multifaceted movement which shares a sense of cultural nationalism, but differed in tactics and goals and in its appeal to different sectors of the community (Chavez, 7). As a result, the self-determination defined by the Chicano nationalists emphasizes the importance of unity of the Chicano community.

Post 2

2) What were the roles and contributions of students in constructing social movements in the 1960s? To support your arguments, please cite and discuss two concrete examples from the course readings, one from Black Power and another from Chicano Movement.I think students were the main activists and participants during the 1960s. They were so active in these social movements, and they also promoted development. They are at the forefront. For example, the Afro-American Association and Black Panther Party were two important organizations of the Black Power movement, and Black American students established these organizations (Murch 72). They were like the leaders in these activities. Also, students were important for the Chicano movement. They were like the representatives of a democratic society. Many leaders of these organizations and movements were also students. They promoted the movement and put forward many ideas. In the Chicano movement, students also led some activities. Students joined in Chicano movement, and they also drafted El Plan De Aztlán to call for ethnic pride and political changes. They advocated for Mexican Americans to establish the Chicano inhabitants and civilizers as their ethnic identity in American society (El Plan De Aztlán 181). They believed that Mexican Americans had to form their own identity but not white to fight for their rights. These students also provided many ideas about movements so that other Mexican Americans could join in the movement with these ideas. Students in these movements were seeking democracy in the US, and they were the backbone force.


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