HIMS 650 – Discussion Topic :

Hi, Please, respond to Peer/contribute to peer discussion in 100 words minimum (References in APA style).

Peer 1:

According to the Mayo Clinic, heart disease refers to a range of conditions that affect the heart, including coronary artery disease, heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias), congenital heart defects, heart valve disease, disease of the heart muscle, and heart infection (American Heart Association, 2021). In the United States, an estimated 92.1 million adults have at least one type of cardiovascular disease (CDC National Center for Health Statistics, 2021). Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and leads to about 1 in 4 deaths (CDC National Center for Health Statistics, p, 2021).

High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and smoking are the three primary risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Certain lifestyle choices such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol use can also contribute to a higher risk for heart disease (Yang et al., 2012, p. 3). Research has shown that people with a family history of cardiovascular disease also see a significantly higher risk. Analysis of population data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey shows that among young people under the age of 40 with cardiovascular disease, about 1 in 3 can be attributed to the family history of premature heart disease (Moonesinghe et al., 2019, p. 8).

In the U.S. National Library of Medicine clinical trial database, heart disease is the heart condition with the highest number of reported clinical trials. Currently, the United States has the largest number of ongoing clinical trials on heart disease. The four states with the highest volume of clinical studies on heart disease are California (1,545), New York (1,402), Pennsylvania (1,298), and Ohio (1,268).


Heart Disease. Cdc.gov. (2021). Retrieved 12 October 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/heart-disease.htm.

Heart disease – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. (2021). Retrieved 12 October 2021, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353118.

Yang, Q., Cogswell, M. E., Flanders, W. D., Hong, Y., Zhang, Z., Loustalot, F., Gillespie, C., Merritt, R., & Hu, F. B. (2012). Trends in cardiovascular health metrics and associations with all-cause and CVD mortality among U.S. adults. JAMA, 307(12), 1273–1283. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.339

Peer 2:

Clinical trials are the most dependable method for introducing novel medications and new drugs to the public. The procedure incorporates elements that protect human volunteers, prevent biases, verify that patient changes are attributable to the actual experiment and no other causes and enable reliable evaluation of the new procedure with other treatments on the market. Academic institution heart disease trials undergoing especially in California (typically with grant money), pharmaceutical corporations, or government agencies usually initiate and manage clinical studies.

There are four distinct stages of clinical studies. Phase I studies, which generally contain only twenty to one hundred extremely ill patients, is designed to figure out how to deliver a new medicine, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), how the person’s body utilizes the drug and any notable side effects. In phase II trials, which are frequently randomized, up to hundreds of individuals are treated, all of whom had detectable illness rates. These trials investigate the drug’s efficacy. The inclusion criteria for Phase III trials, which are frequently randomly assigned and blinded and treat hundreds or thousands of patients, are more liberal, and they are usually multicenter (held simultaneously at more than one site). These tests are used to see if the new medicine is superior to the present ones. Phase IV trials, which take place after a medicine has been approved for sale, are frequently informal. Pharmaceutical corporations may simply request that doctors produce studies on how their patients are reacting to the medication.

The highest number of clinical trials are done on heart diseases especially congenital heart disease. According to NIH (National Institute of Health), The United States of America has the greatest number of heart disease clinical trials, especially in California.


Caple, C. R. B. M., & Mennella, H. D. A.-B. (2018). Patient Rights (The Joint Commission, 2018): Research, Investigation, and Clinical Trials. CINAHL Nursing Guide.

Stilling, G. E. S. M. A. . M. L. S. (2020). Clinical trials. Magill’s Medical Guide (Online Edition).


Please, reply to peer 3 & peer 4: (100 words minimum with at least 2-3 references in APA style)

Peer 3: In following up on your statement that ‘vascular diseases may not be considered a heart condition’ I broadened my insight on the differences between cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease which I assumed were the same. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute there are very distinct differences (Know the Differences, n.d.). Cardiovascular disease refers to all types of diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels. Coronary heart disease most generally known as “heart disease,” although it’s not the only type of heart disease. All heart diseases are cardiovascular diseases, but not all cardiovascular diseases are heart disease (Know the Differences, n.d.).


Know the Differences. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/sites/default/files/medi…

Peer 4:

Good post and information. I totally put coronary artery disease. The most clinical trials were done in Europe and in the state of Maryland. The United States does so many clinical trials. Most of them are to help figure out which medications or treatment is best for the heart diseases.

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