ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 9, 10
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 5 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Instructions
First, return to your topic chosen in the week three assignment.

  • Answer this question: What are the personal and/or communal ethical factors that may be involved in determining the moral position of either side in that debate?
  • Next, articulate and then evaluate the ethical positions ¬†using Kantian ethics (that is, the categorical imperative) relative to the long standing debate (that is your topic chosen in the week three assignment).
  • Finally, create a complete annotated bibliography for 5 academic scholarly sources. You will annotate each source. The sources should be relevant to your topic chosen in the week three assignment.

Include the following:

  • Publication details
  • Annotation (a detailed reading of the source)

Each annotation section should include the following:

  • Summarize key points and identify key terms (using quotation marks, and citing a page in parentheses).
  • Describe the controversies or “problems” raised by the articles.
  • State whether you agree or disagree and give reasons.
  • Locate one or two quotations to be used in the final research project.
  • Evaluate the ways in which this article is important and has helped you focus your understanding.

Use the following as a model:

APA Reference
Mezirow, J. (2003). Transformative learning as discourse. Journal of Transformative Education, 1(1), 58-63.

Annotation Example
In this article, Mezirow (2003) makes a distinction between “instrumental” and “communicative” learning. “Instrumental learning” refers to those processes which measure and gauge learning, such as tests, grades, comments, quizzes, attendance records and the like. “Communicative learning,” on the other hand, refers to understanding created over time between individuals in what Mezirow calls “critical-dialectical-discourse,” (p. 59) which is a fancy way of saying, important conversation between 2 or more speakers. Another key idea Mezirow discusses is “transformative learning,” (p. 61) which changes the mind, the heart, the values and beliefs of people so that they may act better in the world. Mezirow argues that “hungry, desperate, homeless, sick, destitute, and intimidated people obviously cannot participate fully and freely in discourse” (p. 59). On the one hand, he is right: there are some people who cannot fully engage because their crisis is so long and deep, they are prevented. But, I don’t think Mezirow should make the blanket assumption that everyone in unfortunate circumstances is incapable of entering the discourse meaningfully. One thing is certain: if we gave as much attention to the non-instrumental forms of intelligence–like goodness, compassion, forgiveness, wonder, self-motivation, creativity, humor, love, and other non-measured forms of intelligence in our school curriculums, we’d see better people, actors in the world, and interested investigators than we currently have graduating high school.


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ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

I’m working on a other discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 9, 10 ——-> Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Introduction
Kant’s famous First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative reads, “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Kant taught morality as a matter of following maxims of living that reflect absolute laws. “Universal” is a term that allows for no exceptions, and what is universal applies always and everywhere. Don’t forget about the second formulation of the categorical imperative which states, “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means.” It is just as important.

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, address one of the following sets of questions:

  1. What are the personal and/or communal ethical factors that may be involved in determining the moral position of either side given a contemporary debate, such as those concerning animal rights, stem cell research, abortion, the death penalty, and so forth?
  2. Elaborate in detail the ethical positions arrived at by using the Kantian categorical imperative relative to the long standing debate surrounding the death penalty or abortion. Argue the ethics from the point of view of the prisoner or from the fetus
  3. Evaluate the ethical positions in part two. You will want to detail whether they are convincing, logical, correct, consistent, etc.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Student Sample:

Kant’s Categorical Imperatives on Capital Punishment

According to Kant, categorical imperatives are universal absolute laws that everyone should accept and guide rational humans responsible for their deeds and not insane or non-humans. In his first imperative formulation, Immanuel Kant postulated that rational beings should act in such a way that their actions could become universal laws (Rachels, (2019). If our actions cannot be acceptable, then we are immoral, and we should avoid them. Further, the philosopher argues that retributive punishment should be equal to the actions of the wrong done (Rachels, 2019). Therefore, if a rational being kills, the person deserves the same sentence to balance the offense and the loss. From Kant’s view on punishment, the philosopher endorsed death punishment against capital offenders.

However, Kant’s ideology on capital punishment is self-defeating because he implores humans to respect a person’s dignity and humanity above all living things. Moreover, putting individuals in prisons and executing them to maintain law and order in society is against the imperative of using them as a means to achieve society’s needs (Rachels, 2019). According to the Christian view from which our legal systems have evolved, it is against human morals and dignity to kill because life is sanctified and God-given (Attila, 2006). Thus, no one has the right to take another person’s life but only God. Accordingly, Jesus said that we should not apply the rule of an eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth, but instead, we should give our tormentors the other cheek to slap.

From a theological perspective, I do not support that offenders should be let free and harm society. However, a convict’s cruelty in the community should punish and rehabilitate the offenders rather than kill them. Further, death punishment destroys human dignity, as people are irreplaceable. Moreover, sometimes the accused individuals are not guilty of the offenses, and time has vindicated many (Attila, 2006). Therefore, executing the wrongly convicted persons leads to a slippery slope of slaughtering innocent persons while leaving the actual offenders at large. Therefore, my argument is that since Kant’s absolute categorical imperatives are self-defeating as the case of lying to save lives when the Dutch fishermen did to protect Israelis from the Nazis holocaust, the law on capital punishment should be re-appealed to take the form of deterrence and rehabilitation.

References

Rachels, J. (2019). The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York, McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Ataner, Attila. (2006). Kant on Capital Punishment and Suicide. Kant-Studien. 97. 452-482. 10.1515/KANT.2006.028.


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ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 7, 8 ——> Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 2 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)
  • Narrated PowerPoint Tutorial (Make sure to review this tutorial before you begin recording.)

Instructions

For this week’s assignment respond to one of the following options, and include Option 1, 2, or 3 as part of your heading.

Option 1: The first option is to name and describe in detail a key specific and recent healthcare technology. What are at least two key moral problems this technology creates? What are the proper moral guidelines for dealing with it in your view? Compare your approach to what a utilitarian and ethical egoist would say (each independently). Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

Option 2: In the second option, name and describe in detail a key specific and recent social technology. What are at least two key moral problems this technology creates? What are the proper moral guidelines for dealing with it in your view? Compare your moral approach to what a utilitarian and social contract ethicist would say (each independently). Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

Option 3: John Doe, Patient One, is in late stage of kidney disease. If he does not receive a new kidney, then he is predicted to die within a week. Doe is 45, single, and has no children. Doctors theorize that Doe damaged his kidney by not following a low-salt diet. Doe inherited one million dollars and is known for giving money to charity. Without a transplant, he will probably be forced to spend all his money searching for a kidney outside of the usual legal channels. Patient Two is Jane Doe (no relation to John). Patient Two is a mother of two children (ages 21 and 24). She is divorced and 55 years old. She developed kidney problems due to eating a high-fat and high-sugar diet. If she does not receive a kidney within one month, doctors believe she will die. Patient Three is an orphan. This orphan lives in a state facility. She was born with a genetic condition that constantly damages her kidney. The only known approach to her condition is to provide her with a kidney transplant every so often. She is 11 and has already undergone two kidney transplants. She will perish in two months if she does not receive another transplant.

All three patients are at the same hospital. The hospital only has one kidney to give out. The orphan’s birth parents were known to be of a religion that is opposed to organ donation. The other patients come from religions that do not oppose organ donation. Who should get the kidney? Why should that candidate receive it over the others? Devise a course of social action and a solution for this case by using the ethics of egoism and then utilitarianism to a key moral conflict involving health care in this case. Appraise the interests of diverse populations (in terms of ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.) and how they relate to the case. Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

For all the options:

Cite the textbook and incorporate outside sources, including citations.

You should not be using any text you used in a discussion board or assignment for this class or any previous class.

Consider whether differing ethical beliefs globally might or not agree with what you say.

You will submit the following:

  • An audiovisual presentation that presents one of the options above. Be sure to give equal time to each element. Doing a PowerPoint presentation with audio recorded on the slides is preferred. Please refer to the Narrated PowerPoint Tutorial located in the Required Resources in this assignment.
  • Please provide a transcript of anything said in the recording aloud that does not appear as text on a slide. This transcript can be provided as a Word document or placed in the Notes section on the PowerPoint slides.
  • The link or a scan of the article mentioning any health technology, social technology, or case you are reporting on. If you made up the case, please indicate that in your report. If you choose to do option #3 (the case about a shortage of transplant kidneys), your article would likely be an article about the shortage of transplant organs, or a shortage of people signing up to be transplant donors, or the status of educating people about being donors, etc.

Presentation Requirements

  • Length: 4-6 minutes narrated presentation
  • Slide length: 4-6 slides (not including title slide, conclusion slide, or references slide)
  • Title slide
  • Conclusion slide
  • References slide (minimum of 2 scholarly sources cited in APA format; not narrated)

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ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapter 5, 6
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the course textbook)

Instructions
This assignment is the first step in a three part project. You only need to focus on part one at this point. Each step will build on earlier steps. However, it is not a matter of providing a rough draft of all or even part of the entire project here in week three. That is, further steps might require completely new and original text. At the same time, completing each step will aid you in completing a future step or future steps. And, you should use the same topic in all steps.

First, select a topic of moral controversy, debate, disagreement, and dispute, Examples of such topics are euthanasia, the death penalty, abortion, cloning, etc. You can pick any such topic. It need not be listed here.

Next, detail the positions of each side of the ethical debate. Note at least two moral reasons each side presents to show their view on the topic is correct.

Now, we want to evaluate these positions using the moral theories we studied this week:

  • What would an Ethical Egoist say about this topic? What side would the Ethical Egoist take? What would the Ethical Egoist say to justify their moral position? Is there a conflict between loyalty to self and to community relevant to your topic? If so, how so? Note what you feel is the best course of action.
  • What would a Social Contract Ethicist say about this topic? What side would the Social Contract Ethicist take? What would the Social Contract Ethicist say to justify their moral position? Does your topic involve a collision between personal obligations and national ones? If so, how so? Note what you feel is the best course of action.

Finally, reference and discuss any professional code of ethics relevant to your topic such as the AMA code for doctors, the ANA code for nurses, or any other pertinent professional code. State whether and how your chosen topic involves any conflicts between professional and familial duties.

Cite the textbook and incorporate outside sources, including citations.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 3-4pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook)

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ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

Book: Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 3, 4
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the textbook

Instructions

Review the following ethical dilemmas:

  1. John Doe has decided to clone himself. He is sterile. He cannot find anyone to marry him. He wishes to have children. He knows that he will not be able to love a child that is adopted or not connected directly to him biologically. He will be making use of a new procedure that involves taking his skin cells to produce a twin. The twin starts out as an embryo and grows into a child. The child in this case will have the same genetic information as John Doe. John Doe and his child will be twins.
  2. Jane Doe is eighteen. For as long as she can remember she has been sexually attracted to other females. Her parents belong to a religion that has a religious text stating that God forbids one to be a lesbian. This religion goes on further to say that lesbians will be punished in the afterlife. Jane Doe is debating whether she should tell her parents about her sexual attraction. She has not yet decided if she should come out to her parents and live as a lesbian now that she is a legal adult.
  3. Joe and Mary are a couple. Before becoming sterile, they had a child. This child died of a rare disease. Joe and Mary miss their child terribly. They have heard that there is a new IVF procedure that can ensure that they can have another child. However, their religion forbids using IVF.
    Use the resources assigned for this week and additional research,

Instructions
Select two of the situations above and then address 2 of the following:

  1. What is the relation between ethics and religion? Formulate and investigate the relation.
  2. For each case, determine the ethical path of conduct. Then, determine what paths of conduct would be unethical
  3. For each case, what would an emotivism say to appraise what you determine is the ethical form of conduct?
  4. For each case, would a natural law ethicist agree with what you say is the ethical form of conduct? Why or why not?
  5. Articulate, explain, and evaluate in each case an approach that makes use of divine command ethics.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

  • Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page)
  • 1-inch margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • Title page
  • References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources)

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ETHC 445N Chamberlain College

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

  • Textbook: Chapters 3, 4
  • Lesson
  • Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Initial Post Instructions
St. Augustine in the 5th Century held that we are free to make choices in life. This is the idea of free will. It may seem at first glance odd for a religious thinker to say that we have free will. After all, if God exists, then God created all things. God knows already what we will do. God can cause anything to occur. If we cause things to occur, that seems to be a limitation on the power of God and not make God all-powerful.

There are also religion traditions that say that we have no free will. There are some theologians in Islam who seem to suggest that is true. In order for this line of reasoning to hold true, one would need to believe free will is an illusion and that we have no control over how we live our lives, but rather that we are puppets moving and acting due to God’s will and the powers of destiny and fate. And if this then in the case, how can we possibly be responsible for our actions?

The considerations above show us to what degree our religious beliefs can shape us. For instance, someone who believes in free will may experience way more guilt than someone who believes we don’t have free will and thus aren’t responsible for the choices (and consequences) of the actions we take.

Personal struggles with religion and ethics occur in many places, including in the healthcare arena. Consider the following: You are a nurse in a hospital. A 12 year-old was brought to the hospital by an ambulance. The parents have just arrived at the hospital. This 12 year-old has lost a large amount of blood and requires a transfusion. The parents happen to be members of a religion that believes that blood transfusions are immoral. They want to remove the child from the hospital and prevent the transfusion even if it means the death of the child. You have to decide whether or not you will participate in an action that violates the will of the parents and aid in providing blood for the child. If you choose to participate, and even if you are able to legally justify it, you have to think about the distress you are creating for the parents. If you refuse to aid here, you may be subject to retaliation from the hospital. What is the moral thing for the nurse to do here?

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, address the following questions:

  1. What would a divine command ethicist say is the moral thing to do here? Why would they say that? Do you agree with the divine command ethics? Why or why not?
  2. Evaluate what a natural law ethicist would say is right to do. Do you agree with them? Why or why not?
  3. Given what you said are the right things to do, what would an emotivist say about your positions and judgments? What role does subjectivity play here in determining what is ethical?

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references
  • Textbook: Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education.


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