please choose 2/3 posts and reply to 2 posts..
As an infant, they solely rely on breast milk. They are new to this world, and have no other source of nutrients besides relying on their mothers milk. Breast milk is a nutritional source that is simply irreplaceable. Even in comparison to formula, it is not the same. Being that it is the best source of nutrition for a new baby, many components of breast milk help protect infants from infection and disease. Breast milk contains proteins, fats, vitamins and carbohydrates that is a simple yet perfect combination for a new baby. The proteins in breast milk are much easier digested than those in formula or in cows milk. Other nutrients also in breast milk are calcium and iron, which are easily absorbed. We then have our leukocytes that are living in the cells and you cannot get that anywhere else than in breast milk. This given resource is what helps fight infection for babies exposed to an illness. The antibodies, living cells, enzymes, hormones, you name it is whats proven to be a perfect choice for a newborn babies nutrients. For those that are unable to breast feed, there are many donors and milk banks that could be an alternative option.
“Good nutrition in infancy fosters optimal growth and development. Infant feeding is more than providing nutrition; it is an opportunity for social, psychologic, and even educational interaction between parent and infant. It can also establish a basis for developing good eating habits that last a lifetime.” As a nurse, it is up to us to provide formal communication and education for new parents and their babies. Although many parents choose formula over breast milk, breast milk is the gold standard of nutrition for infants.
The fascinating article you suggested. It provided great information and a solid argument supporting what should be happening throughout the life stages, at least nutritionally, but let us discuss what is actually taking place and one of the reasons why America as a nation is obese.
We require essential amino acids, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, along with an assortment of vitamins and minerals to sustain a healthy life. But, nutritional needs vary from one life stage to another. During intrauterine development, infancy, and childhood, recommended intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients are higher relative to body size than those during adulthood. In elderly individuals, some nutrient needs, like vitamin D, increase, while others, such as energy and iron, are reduced (WHO, n.d.).
The primary nutritional problems encountered in developed countries are excess macronutrient intakes of saturated fat, protein, and sugar. In contrast, simultaneously, intakes of fiber and micronutrients provided by vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes are insufficient (WHO, n.d.).
Overfed infants and children can develop dietary habits and metabolic characteristics that have lifelong consequences (WHO, n.d.). As the article stated, infants should be entirely breastfed for the first six months of their life if possible. According to your article, and supported by the World Health Organization (n.d.), breastfed infants are less likely to be overweight or obese in childhood and adolescence.
Adolescents face a similar problem. Numerous teens consume higher-than-recommended totals of fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars, thus increasing the risk for adolescent and adult obesity, along with other health problems (Whitlock et al., 2005). The increased rate of excess body weight in adolescents is correlated with escalating risk for type 2 diabetes (Vivian, 2006).
Adults in developed countries are at distinct risk of excess sugar intake. Although a significant percentage of North Americans have an inadequate intake of essential micronutrients and fiber, sugar intake typically exceeds necessary levels (Whitlock et al., 2005). Also, in Western countries, dietary staples, such as meat, dairy, and vegetable oils, are far more energy-dense than in traditional cultures such as Asian or African, where grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables are more prominent elements of the diet. Aggravating this is the issue with increases in food portion sizes, availability, and consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor fast foods (Isganaitis et al., 2005). Consequently, adults are experiencing an epidemic of obesity-related diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer (Firdaus, 2005). The metabolic syndrome, frequently triggered by obesity, is a common problem in elderly persons and is associated with a greater risk for premature mortality (Firdaus, 2005).
Needs for energy and micronutrients change over an individual’s life cycle. While inadequate intake of certain micronutrients is a concern, far more significant complications arise from the dietary excesses of sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined carbohydrates, feeding the current epidemics of obesity and chronic disease. Nurses can help patients choose foods that keep sugar intake within reasonable bounds while maximizing intakes of nutrient-rich foods, particularly vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains.
- What health disparities will occur for this group if there is a deficiency or excess of at least one macronutrient and one micronutrient? As people age, they experience reductions in metabolism and changes in physiology that significantly affect their nutritional needs. One excess for micronutrient would be the increased consumption of fat and cholesterol, cholesterol is necessary for maintaining health; it helps the body produce hormones, synthesize vitamin D, and digest food. Too much cholesterol or fat contributes to the development of heart problems, hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease. The heart muscles become less efficient over time. As the heart works harder to pump blood, the blood vessels lose some elasticity. If hardened, fatty deposits form on the inner walls of the arteries, the arteries become stiffer. This hardening of the arteries, is known as atherosclerosis, this disease is caused by the build up of plaque in the arteries. If plaque builds up, the heart must work harder to pump blood, and this can cause high blood pressure and other cardiovascular problems. A deficiency for micronutrient would be calcium. As people age, they begin to lose bone density and strength. As density is lost, bones may shrink, and older adults may become shorter. Loss of bone density increases the risk of osteoporosis, a condition described as brittle bones. The fragile bones make seniors or older adults more vulnerable to bone fractures, it also makes them more at risk for falls. In women, decline in bone density accelerates after menopause, placing women at a higher risk. Other factors contributing to osteoporosis include physical inactivity and smoking. Consuming a diet rich in calcium, ensuring adequate vitamin D status and regularly engaging in weight-bearing exercise are key to supporting bone health.
- Discuss the developmental and socioeconomical factors that could affect adequate nutritional intake for this population. Although nutritious food choices and a balanced diet are essential for older adults to maintain a healthy lifestyle and to promote longevity, various obstacles can prevent or limit seniors from practicing and benefiting from good eating habits. These obstacles include loneliness, limited finances, lack of cooking skills or desire to cook, inadequate nutritional knowledge, oral or dental problems and difficulty chewing, loss of appetite, and cognitive problems. The senses of smell and taste decrease with age, which may result in a decreased appetite. The number of taste buds starts to decrease when women are in their forties and men are in their fifties. Loss of taste seems to occur mostly after age 60. Sense of smell may begin to diminish after age 70, which may be linked to a decreased number of nerve endings in the nose. Aging also brings a reduction in the amount of saliva produced, which causes the mouth to be dry and can make it harder to swallow. Many older people in the United States depend only on Social Security for their income. This limited income is strained as housing, food, medications, and energy costs increase.
- Explain the role of the nurse in population based nutritional programs for the chosen population. The role of the nurse in these population would be to help prevent disease, maintain patient’s health and treat any existing health problems. Providing education would one of the key components in order to achieve disease prevention and health maintenance of the patient. Our plan of care should be patient centered care and it is based on the patient’s physiologic, pathologic, and psychosocial condition. Our overall goal for their population would be to maintain or restore maximal independent functionning and health; and maintain our patient’s sense of dignity and quality of life.