- The Roles of Opposite Genders in Corrections There are pros and cons to having male correctional officers guarding female inmates and vice versa with female correctional officers guarding male inmates. Unfortunately the cons, outweigh the pros of this situation. There is a greater negative effect, and it is better to have the same gender of corrections officers serving inmates. Correctional guards can use the power they have over inmates to force them to do things that are unethical and go against the rights of the inmates. This can also go the opposite way, with inmates trying to use the guards of the opposite gender to their benefit. This can be seen especially when an inmate seduces a guard for the benefit of better treatment. Or if the guard uses the inmates in the same way in exchange for better treatment within the prison. A favor here, for more time outside or in the shower or something similar. There are also instances when a guard may assault an inmate of another gender. This could be seen in instances of both physical and sexual assault. Although it is not often heard of (as more focus is put on police officers in the street), these types of things do occur. And when they do, if not punished for it, it could give “some CO’s a greenlight to beat inmates who talk back or who don’t give them the proper respect” as well as feeling as if it “is also acceptable to beat inmates who are black or Hispanic or mentally ill” (Pollock, 381). It is never acceptable to beat another person unless the life of that person depended on it. No inmate should be hurt because they talk back or because of race or gender. Only if they are causing extreme harm, should something like that happen to them. Another negative affect is that male inmates have a better chance of overpowering a guard when the guard is a female versus when they guard is a male. Physically, men do tend to be stronger than women, and if a few male inmates tried to overpower a female guard or two, they could subdue them enough to where they are able to try and make an escape. The Saint Leo Core values of integrity and community can both be used within the correctional officer field. Correctional officers must use a high discretion when working and know right from wrong and how to make good choices when on the job. They have to use their power correctly. Community can be used to describe what the officers serve. A prison facility is a community within itself. They are there to protect and enforce rules down on the prisoners for the protection of all there.
- What are some possible positive outcomes of adopting restorative justice programs?Restorative justice is defined as an approach seeking to provide restitution rather than retribution as noted in our text early on in Chapter–3, (Reichel, 1997; Bazemore and Maloney, 1994). Restorative justice interprets criminal acts as more than violating the law. Research revealed it causes harm to victims and people, affects relationships, and damages the community. Restorative justice hopes to address not only those harms but the wrongdoing as well. This is accomplished by discussing those harms and how to resolve the issues. By the parties involved meeting and discussing these issues it leads to transformational changes in their respective lives. Historically laws required victim compensation and reparation. Supporters believe restorative justice does not only places emphasis on the victims but may also be a positive life changing experience for the offender. Some of the positive emphasis of restorative justice programs include sentencing circles, family and group counseling, victim and offender mediation sessions, community compensation boards, victim education programs and other localize assistance (Umbreit, Coates, and Vos, 2002). Restorative justice programs in recent years have receive positive responses from victims’ rights groups (Karp 1998). For the process it offers victims in order to seek restoration and compensation. Restorative justice is designed with a clear approach of hoping to meet the basic needs of both the victims and offenders. For this discussion, I will find fitting Integrity as is defined in our Saint Leo University core values. Restorative justice programs and those involved like the correction professionals have a certain responsibility to the citizens they serve. Should always display professional bearing and moral fortitude. They should set an example by maintaining integrity, ethics, and strong morals while respecting the inmates they serve and protect. They have the responsibility to exhibit high moral, and Integrity based on mutual trust and respect to create a socially responsible environment.
- What new drugs are becoming popular among America’s youth? How pervasive is inhalant abuse? What are the so-called club drugs?“Club drugs tend to be used by teenagers and young adults at bars, nightclubs, concerts, and parties. Club drugs include GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, MDMA (Ecstasy), Methamphetamines, and LSD.”“Use of illicit drugs, including marijuana, has been rising steadily among college-ages young adults. In addition, non-medical use of stimulants, including Adderall and Ritalin, has more than doubled in the past few years.”“Although other substances that are misused can be inhaled, the term inhalants refers to the various substances that people typically take only be inhaling. The substances include solvents such as liquids that become gas at room temperature, aerosol sprays, gases, and nitrites. The studies show that 9.3 percent of children ages 12 or older, 8.6 percent ages 12-17, 9.5 percent of adults 18-25, and 9.3 percent of adults 26 or older will abuse inhalants.”In my profession, I run into a lot of synthetic marijuana use among youth and have seen an extreme climb in Fentanyl overdoses amongst young adults. Pasco County has become one of the counties most recognized for Heroin/Fentanyl overdoses. Speaking to many of the individuals that survive the overdose stated that they cannot get stoned from heroin any longer but need the more potent Fentanyl.I was advised that when an individual overdoses on Fentanyl, the addicts look at the overdose differently than normal citizens that do not have a drugs problem. The overdose on that product is an unintended (sometimes) marketing tool for the dealer. Most Heroin/fentanyl user see the overdose as proof that the substance is strong and good. They will buy the product thinking they are a more seasoned user or have a higher tolerance than the person that overdosed. I personally have used my issued narcan on 4 overdosed in the past 2 weeks where one (a 19 year old female) passed away. This is an epidemic that is getting out of hand and too many people are dying.
- Today a new drug called Kratom classified as an opioid and often touted as an organic pain reliever. It is a risky substance and has become increasingly popular with teen and young adults. Its affects can be severe with more severe side effects including respiratory depression and psychosis. It is also highly addictive. Another new drug trending is e-cigarettes. FDA become aware of some people that used e-cigarettes have experienced seizures. Club drugs are called Gamma hydroxybutyrate, Rohypnol, ketamine, as well as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine. Inhalant abuse is ignored by many and so many disregards the dangers posed to their children from common household products that contains volatile solvents or aerosols. Products such as glues, nail polisher remover, lighter fluid, spray paints, hairsprays etc. are widely available. Many young people inhale the vapors from these sources in search for quick intoxication without being aware that using inhalants, even once, can have a serious health consequence. Natural surveys indicate that nearly 21.7 million Americans age 12 and older have used inhalants at least once in their lives. Monitoring the Future survey showed that 13.1 percent of 8th graders have used inhalers.
1) If Robin, a six-year-old boy, falls in one of the trenches and injures himself, are the Ainleys liable even though Robin was clearly trespassing on their property?Yes, as stated in our textbook, “a duty of responsible care is owed to an adult trespasser whose presence has been discovered or who habitually intrudes on a limited area. Reasonable care is also owed to the child trespasser whose presence is foreseeable” (Schubert, 427).Therefore, the Ainley’s have a responsibility to make sure Robin is safe. Since children are creatures of habit, will just ignore do not enter signs onto the property. The Ainley’s will have to erect a fence to help keep out trespassers. If the children then trespass at that point, they should no longer be held liable.
2) Suppose that as the home is being constructed, some of the construction workers leave planks of plywood out over the weekend, and Robin and his friend use the planks as skateboarding ramps. Are the Ainleys liable for the injuries Robin sustains when he tumbles off his makeshift skateboarding ramp? The Ainley’s cannot be held liable if they are unaware of the plywood left over by the construction crew. As our textbook states, “damages for an injury are not recoverable if it was not foreseen or could not have been foreseen or anticipated” (Schubert, 425). The plywood is property of the construction company and it is their responsibility to secure any left over items at the construction site.
If the Ainsley’s don’t have any safety measures in place such as:
- “No Trespassing” signs around the entire perimeter of the area
- fencing off the area
- covering open trenches with tarp
- advising the other neighborhood homeowners of the construction and how long it will be in that state
The Ainsley’s would be held liable for Robin’s injuries for not taking the necessary precautions to keep potential trespassers (kids) away. However if the Ainsley’s used the above precautions, then they may not be held liable for Robin’s injuries. The kids previously used their property as a short cut; the Ainsley’s must take reasonable care to ensure that the property and the kids are protected from any potential dangers that either (property/kids) can cause the other. Also, Robin is six years old where his age and maturity would be taken into consideration as well i.e. did he understand and know that the site was dangerous. If the planks were left out by the construction workers and Robin is injured, the Ainsley’s wouldn’t be liable for his injuries. The construction workers are not only there to build the structure but to also ensure that the area is maintained safely even after work hours. This not only includes keeping the supplies stored in a safe area but also any tools or equipment that is at the site.