Concordia University St Paul

No.1.

by Maham Alam

Designing is the first and highly important step for a successful implementation of a database but even after carefully considering the designing aspects of building a database, there is still no guarantee that it’s going to work as perfect as an ideal database, because as they say “A well-designed database just works”, which means that even slightest of the slightest mistakes can cause problems, that are usually cumulative in nature and could cause misery to DBAs, developers and managers. Therefore, in my opinion the designing part of the database development is the most important factor in deciding a successful implementation (Davidson, 2019).

With the huge developments in scope and capabilities of what customers could expect from applications, it is certainly a challenge to design a perfect database. As there are thousands of databases available that have advantages or disadvantages over the others, it becomes critical to underline some key constraints that one’s database should meet before its implementation. Some general yet crucial constrains that a good quality database should have are data safety, data security, availability, performance and scalability (Elizabeth, 2018).

Data safety and security are the terms used interchangeably to highlight data protection in a database. This characteristic of a database defines that no data should be lost or put at risk at any cost. Any database that needs to be implemented must be ensured that it is free of physical and human error related data risks, moreover, the security rules of the database should be easy to set up so that if any security breach happens the DBA is notified immediately and can take care of it. For safety of the database it’s important that database should follow ACID, irrespective of its relational or non-relational characteristic. For a better available database it is highly recommended that a data cluster is used where there are multiple servers so that the database is not dependent on just one server and it has other backup servers available to ensure working of the organization in case one server goes down. Similarly for performance and scalability, even if you are feeding your database with an extraordinary amount of data, it should still be able to process it faster, hence a database should always be deployed with a decent default settings so that it recognizes any operational environment easily and adjust according to it and eventually should grow with your data and business (Elizabeth, 2018).

Other than these general constraints, special attention must be given to the documentation, for it to be used as a guide for definitions of column, table, relationships, and constraints present in the particular database. Similarly DBA should not forget normalization of databases to avoid data redundancy and proper indexing to ensure a better performance and maintenance of the database after its implementation (Davidson, 2019).

References

Davidson, L. (2019, January 23). Ten Common Database Design Mistakes. Simple Talk. https://www.red-gate.com/simple-talk/sql/database-administration/ten-common-database-design-mistakes/

Elizabeth, J. (2018, September 26). How to overcome 5 common database challenges. JAXenter. https://jaxenter.com/overcome-5-common-database-ch…

No.2.

by Mouna Konidhina

Database applications are generally used to store data in a file system database. There are many different types of databases. One of the most used database applications is the SQL database. SQL is a language and a database is built using these databases. It is a powerful platform for retrieving, processing, and maintaining data. This application is the primary application used.in the development of Big Data systems. Another approach is to combine the development of a new system by one or more independent participants or teams with the application development activities and the training of the system development team.In a production environment, database applications are usually used to manage and monitor processes on a computer. An application is an independent application program that processes a program or a file.

High availability

In database management, a system consists of a set of activities related to the production and monitoring activities in a database. These activities are executed by the database server that runs the business logic in the system. Business logic can be thought of as a series of rules and procedures and each business logic rule has to have a correspondingexecution policy and execution rules. The model is not strictly ad hoc but is intended to give an overview of several issues related to complex problem-solving.

The distributed architecture makes it easy for nodes to share resources across the network and the failure of one does not impact other nodes in the distributed network. A distributed database is not restricted to just data storage but the storage network as well. For this reason, several distributed databases are currently in development. Cloud bursting has been widely used by companies and organizations to make use of more infrastructure resources (Mascari, et al., 2019).

Data safety

One method is to store the entire document in a database and allow the user to access the data later as needed. This technique involves an intermediary such as a search engine or any data processing program. The other method is to use specialized storage media such as hard drives that store only certain types of data. This type of storage is called transactional storage. It can be used for long-term data that requires only moderate access to the storage hardware to which it has been attached, and is used only when it is not needed.

The data stored in these environments is highly available and can be easily and quickly moved and deleted. If the data is accessed outside of the organization, it is almost guaranteed that the organization’s data could be compromised by the user. The key to effective cloud deployment is the consistency of the data, in other words: where possible, the data can be reliably and reliably backed by the correct IT infrastructure (Melikhova, et al., 2019).

References

Mascari, F., Carny, F. R. P., Liptak, L., Adorni, M., Fontanet, J., Herranz, L. E., … & Kubicek15, J. (2019). FASTNET Scenarios Database Development and Status. submitted to ERMSAR.

Melikhova, E. V., Rogachev, A. F., & Skiter, N. N. (2019). Information system and database for simulation of irrigated crop growing. In Ubiquitous Computing and the Internet of Things: Prerequisites for the Development of ICT (pp. 1185-1191). Springer, Cham.

No.3.

by Laxmi Kirti Bachu

In general, let us talk initially few points on what are the types of database models that are used by developers to build software applications. They are:

Flat Model

Hierarchical Model

Network Model

Relational Model

Dimensional Model – Supporting ETL/Data Warehousing concepts.

Flat model is a two-dimensional array of systems with rows related to one another. This is a scalable feature for this structure and the least possible usage is only to store texts. In hierarchical model, data is organized as a tree like structure with one-to-many relationship between parent and children. The main drawback of this model is that it can carry only one to many relationships between nodes. On the other hand, A network model is a database model which is one of the flexible approaches representing objects and their relationships. Uniqueness of this model is its schema, is represented as a graph where relationship types are arcs and object types are nodes. Next is one of the prime models- Relational data model, which is widely used around the world for data storage and processing. This model is quite simple and comes with all the capabilities and properties required to process data with storage efficiency. Last but not the least is the Dimensional Model which supports ETL/Data Warehousing concepts with huge repositories of data maintaining history.This is one of the widely used models inorder to produce data analytics with dashboards and reporting purposes (Choudhury , 2021)

The best 3 data models picked by developers these days to build an efficient model are:

Network,relational and dimensional.Let us understand each with an example.As we know, this model addresses the problem of flexibility which is one of the biggest advantages among simplifying concepts, conformance –to- standards and promote integrity of the databases.The disadvantages include complex structure and time inefficient.Best example is building student record management system in a school.Here one student is linked with multiple subjects or departments , student id being the key.However, even though the ease of access is great,complexity is higher (Koczkodaj).

Next is the relational model which engulfs the fact that it is the one of most widely used models.As an utmost advantage is its simplicity and almost designing any kind of database management system with logical data models in tabular structures. Best examples start from any employee records management systems to ticketing systems.Best DBMS systems are: DB2/Informix Dynamic Server – IBM, Oracle,Sybase etc.It has one of the biggest disadvantages of storage which was however eventually answered by Big Data systems.

Lastsly, the third one is an extension of relational model where data is managed via facts and dimensions to extract,transform and load the data from one DBMS to the other.This handles huge data structures and volumes.Example is to manage an entire organizational DBMS with all the necessary records starting from sales to financial aspects , draw them into reports to make strategic business decisions (Al-Fedaghi)

References-

Choudhury,(2021). Investigation of model structure strategies for the advancement of machinability database systems. Global Journal of Production Research, 34(5), 1261.

Koczkodaj,(2020). Streamlining consistency of rating scales by differential development for the utilization by aggregate wise data and database systems. Diary of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 37(6), 7545-7553.

Al-Fedaghi, (2020,). Modeling Business Process and Events. In Computer Science On-line Conference (pp. 366-379). Springer, Cham.

No.4.

by Mouna Konidhina – Saturday, April 17, 2021, 9:18 PM

Number of replies: 0

Traditional database processing models are designed to handle massive numbers of users in diverse locations and contexts By combining the information stored in databases with spatial data, you will be able to derive information from geographically dispersed databases that can provide answers to questions that were previously unsolved by using different levels of spatial data (Ďurech et al., 2018). Sociological Web technology is a Web technology that enables users to interact with and access information from social bookmarking, e-mail discussion boards, and bulletin boards, which are all sources of information that can be accessed by others.

Inverted file model

Inverted file model means in contrast to other file models, data are not stored inside the virtual machine directory and data storage is in the same directory as the application files or applications. In such a case, as the model starts with a hierarchal structure, each department, sub-unit or sub-program is made visible and can be accessed directly. This increases flexibility in the system as there are no functional boundaries between the modules/activities (Fricke&Asche, 2019). Disadvantages inverted file model restricts you to one archive per folder/drive. If one folder is full and a second folder is empty, only one archive will be generated. However, folders with duplicate data can also be duplicated with this method if the original data files (the ones containing the original) are saved to another folder.

Flat model

Flat model means that we represent all the points on the map in the flat space. Hence there are some lines which can be used in the model and other lines which cannot. In this way the edges of the model get smoother. We have to consider each point on the map that we want to represent on the model (Ďurech et al., 2018).These advantages include a high level of flexibility and powerful modelling capabilities. These capabilities include the ability to model complex relationships from small to large scales, to multiple product lines, and to simulate products, process characteristics, and environmental conditions with highly accurate models.Disadvantages include the following: Degree of uncertainty the value of all possible outcomes for each person is reduced as the model gets larger. Limited sampling the number of people who can be included in the model is relatively low.

Multidimensional model

Multidimensional model is a descriptive model used in business for describing process flows. It shows the process state and the possible causes for process failure with reference to the process components. A dimension is a unit dimension. Multidimensional model advantages include the following: Data and information about the object and the system can be easily extracted for analysis. Data for process modelling, including the control, can be generated. Unobtrusive and simplified multidimensional models have the advantage of reducing the effort to produce complex models(Fricke&Asche, 2019). Disadvantages include: the difficulty of defining and isolating variable dimensions the inability to explain variation associated with a single factor difficulty in linking cause and effect an absence of a consensus on cause and effect the use of multiple cause-and-effect relationships the multidimensional approach does have some advantages, however. It allows the development of a multidimensional scale which can be of real use in comparative.

References

Ďurech, J., Hanuš, J., & Ali-Lagoa, V. (2018). Asteroid models reconstructed from the Lowell Photometric Database and WISE data. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 617, A57.

Fricke, A., &Asche, H. (2019, July). Geospatial database for the generation of multidimensional virtual city models dedicated to urban analysis and decision-making. In International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (pp. 711-726). Springer, Cham.


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Concordia University St Paul

Discussion_2

by Yeswanth Katragadda

Number of replies: 1

Picture of Software Engineering and Software Quality

It’s important when planning a project. While the project is in the development process, many performance indicators are taken into account, as well as budget and duration. This approach is flexible and can improve project management. By using this approach, this project will achieve the desired goals. Another approach used when developing a better alternative project. The client’s intervention in this process is so limited that the project is completed according to the requirements of the design team. Muhammad, S. S. (2017).

If there are changes, the entire code will have to be modified, which is a time-consuming task. The development phase is time-consuming as documentation is required at every stage. The waterfall model is used for complete software development. In an iterative model, the problem contributes various conditions to the analytical information. Benefits of this interaction include improvements that are accurately archived in terms of mosque preparation and capacity. This gives time to the number of milestones needed for the expected excess documentation. The waterfall model is primarily suitable for more affordable prices where everything you need is explained.

Spiral models are design combinations, as are models at different stages, in addition to specific angle combinations. The advantages include emphasizing the angle of attraction and separating the common loop from different perspectives, while the disadvantages include the costly perspectives associated with implementing and implementing this common interaction. This helps organize and schedule tasks, and the methodology is often considered the basis. There are several models, but you have to follow some processes during the development process.

The waterfall model demonstrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow. The waterfall model has several advantages. For example, the linear structure is very easy to understand here. It is inherently inflexible and modifications are limited to the last phase only. In previous projects, the requirements were not really known. Agile methods actually split the artifact into many small incremental builds. Communication and the general public are more focused than tools and processes. Testers, consumers, and developers always interact. In many cases, valid software is provided. Work Requirements-If the customer representative does not clarify the requirements, the project can be easily canceled. Kramer, M. (2018).

This model is a combination of an iterative model and a waterfall model. The spiral model really helps to iterate over the software development elements of multiple process models in this model. Each stage of the spiral model begins with a design goal and ends with customer validation. The cost is very easy to estimate because the prototype contains small parts. Development here is very fast. Documentary requirements are high here and there are intermediate stages.

References

Anwer, F., Aftab, S., Waheed, U., & Muhammad, S. S. (2017). Agile software development models TDD, fdd, dsdm, and crystal methods: A survey. International journal of multidisciplinary sciences and engineering, 8(2), 1-10.

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Concordia University St Paul

Discussion 2

by Kirankumar Ammireddy

Number of replies: 1

Picture of Software Engineering and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) Group

Each association of improvement has its own cycle of working that advances the way toward creating programming. The means of creating programming do have to follow a few stages, which makes the whole interaction. Presently the matter is to orchestrate the means. The courses of action are only sometimes absolutely imaginative. With the assistance of this model, organizations do get the capacity to build up the product. The models of programming advancement are the cascade model, lithe model, reasonable and brought together model, twisting model, and gradual and iterative model. In spite of the fact that there are a few models, some interaction needs to follow during the cycle of improvement (Amershi et al., 2019). The cycles are upkeep, arrangement, testing, execution, plan of frameworks, examination of necessities, practicality study, and acknowledgment of chance or need or issues.

The cascade model

It is the soonest approach of SDLC, which got utilized for the improvement of programming. The cascade model outlines the interaction of programming advancement in the straight successive stream. This implies that any period of the improvement model does start after the finish of the past stage. The model got named as the water on the grounds that the model grows slowly starting with one stage then onto the next advance in a declining way. The cascade model has a few benefits like, here, the straight construction gets simple for the arrangement. The advancement of improvement gets effortlessly assessed and furthermore gets expressly archived. This model is well known, and it has a wide scope of commonality (Kramer, 2018). This model additionally scales quite well. It implies that this model gets known for high versatility. It has a few benefits moreover. It isn’t adaptable in nature, and remedies do get restricted to the last stage as it were. In prior projects, necessities were not known in the existence cycle. The functioning rendition gets accessible at the close to end. It does regularly turn into the documentation factory.

Spry model

Spry model SDLC turns out to be the blend of a gradual and iterative interaction with the point of flexibility of technique and furthermore the fulfillment of the client with the assistance of quick conveyance of activity programming item. Dexterous techniques do break the antiquity into numerous minuscule steady forms. The gradual structures dos get given to the emphasess. This model does likewise has a few benefits like conveying consumer loyalty by the quick and consistent conveyance of significant programming. Interchanges and general society do get underlined to some degree than the instruments and interaction. Analyzers, purchasers, and engineers do persistently relate with one another. The running programming gets conveyed over and over. Nonstop fixation to prevalent plan and specialized splendor. Indeed, even the late adjustment in the prerequisites does consistently get invited. The nimble framework does has a few inconveniences likewise (Van Casteren, 2017). On important documentation and plan, the accentuation is deficient. The necessity of exertion is hard to survey, particularly for the huge ones. Assuming the agent of the client gets muddled about their interest, the venture can without much of a stretch get killed. The solitary experienced software engineers do ahev the capacity to take the sort of choices that do get needed during the time spent turn of events. New developers don’t have any spot here.

The Spiral Model

This model gets driven by chances in the improvement interaction of programming. This model turns out to be a mix of the iterative and cascade model. The twisting model assists with taking the selection of the components of programming improvement for the various cycle models for the undertaking of programming. It takes reception by relying on the danger designs for affirming guarantee about the effectiveness in the advancement cycle. Each stage in the winding model starts with a plan point and finishes with customer survey. This model has a few benefits. Extra changes or usefulness can complete at a later part. Rehashed or constant advancement helps in the administration of hazard (Chagas, 2019). The assessment of cost gets exceptionally simple as the model gets implicit minuscule parts. Here the improvement is quick, and the highlights do get included a precise interaction. A few burdens are additionally there. There is a danger of not gathering the assets or timetable. It manages job for just enormous activities, and it does likewise requests mastery in hazard evaluation. Here the prerequisite of documentation is high and has the halfway stages.

References

Amershi, S., Begel, A., Bird, C., DeLine, R., Gall, H., Kamar, E., … and Zimmermann, T. (2019, May). Programming for AI: A contextual investigation. In 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice (ICSE-SEIP) (pp. 291-300). IEEE. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/transfers…

Chagas, L. J. (2019). The winding model in the content of live radio news-casting. Diary of Radio and Audio Media, 26(2), 231-246. https://www.academia.edu/download/65738268/Journal…

Kramer, M. (2018). Best practices in frameworks improvement lifecycle: An investigations dependent on the cascade model. Audit of Business and Finance Studies, 9(1), 77-84. https://www.theibfr.com/download/rbfs/rbfs_2/rbfs-…

Van Casteren, W. (2017). The Waterfall Model and the Agile Methodologies: A correlation by project qualities. Examination Gate, 1-6. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wilfred_Van_C… by-project-characteristics.pdf

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Concordia University St Paul

by Harikrishna Kovuru

Number of replies: 1

Picture of Software Engineering and Data Analytics

With the changes in technology and tools, software development has also transformed from a simple individual activity of developing a standalone program to a much more complicated and distributed and collaborative activity that requires equal contribution from complex software ecosystem. In the past few decades, the software industry has seen emergence of different software development techniques. Some of these approaches were widely accepted and approved by the industry, like Agile software development methodologies. Despite these widely accepted approaches, some challenges still affect the software development process. A degree of process modification is required in some issues and this is referred to as process tailoring as different individual projects has different types of requirements. This raises the point that not all software development projects are same and each individual project has its own challenges.

Some of the basic challenges that software development team has to go through may sound very basic but are also very effective. One of the basic challenge is selecting the software development process. As we talked earlier, each software development task comes with its own challenges and thus require to be analyzed and then the team has to finalize on the software process. For some type of software developments, Agile process may work better and for some other projects, Rapid Application Development model may work better. It is up to the software development team to identify and choose what works for them the best. Another basic challenge is to identifying the right tools and ecosystem for the software that is being built. This may sound very trivial but it is one of the major steps in software development. Identifying and using the right tools from the beginning can help the team in long run in terms of completing the project in time and within specified budget.

References:

Mohapatra, P. K. . (2010). Software Engineering : A Lifecycle Approach. New Age International.

Storey, M. A., Zagalsky, A., Figueira Filho, F., Singer, L., & German, D. M. (2016). How social and communication channels shape and challenge a participatory culture in software development. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 43(2), 185-204.


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