Austin Community College WK2

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The exercises of chapter 3: Ancient Greek Civilization

1. During the Mycenaean civilization, who was the great poet and what were his two important literary works that influenced the Greeks and formed part of Western literature. ______________________________ _____________________________ _______________________________

2. In a period known as the ________________________________ from 1100 B.C. to 800 B.C., life reverted to simpler forms and people lived in relative isolation.

3. The period from the 9th to the 6th century B.C. is known as the _____________________________ during which the Greek kings were deposed by _____________________ ( rule of a fewwho have power and wealth ) of wealthy warriors, and the city-states or _________________ Emerged.

4. A typical Greek city-state would have a fortified hilltop known as the __________________ and the city market would be located in the _____________________ .

5. The Greek deities were _________________________ because they had human qualities in their personalities and bodies.

6. The Greek attitudes toward life were ______________________ and _______________________.

7. Epic poetry are long poetic narrations of heroic feats and the most famous was a blind epic poet called _______________ who became known for the two most famous epic poems of the _____________ and the ______________ .

8. The main protagonist of the Iliad is __________________ , and of the Odyssey is ___________________ who blinds the Cyclops ______________________.

9. Explain what is the historical importance of Homer’s epic poems for the ancient Greeks. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. With Homer the beginnings of _________________________consists of a concern with human beings and their achievements, as he focuses his attention on human characters, demonstrating that Greek quality of interest in humanity or human nature, even the gods are anthropomorphic.

11. Explain the difference between the central theme of the Iliad and of the Odyssey. ______________________________________________________________________

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12. A unique way in which the Greeks were the first to comprehend the reality they observed and tried to understand, was _______________________ thought or speculation.

13. Greek philosophy begins in with the Ionian _________________________ in the 7th century B.C.

14. Why is the Greek discovery of philosophy important? Explain in your own words. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

15. Explain the principle of exclusion, and why is it important for the progress of man? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

16. The idea of the atom was created by _____________________ .

17. Total relativism is a characteristic of the ___________________ philosophy.

18. According to Socrates what is the method or means by which man can come to know the universal truth that does not change. Explain it. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

19. As Socrates, Plato believed that true virtue is based on knowledge. This knowledge comes from the rational apprehension of ____________________ of goodness and justice.

20. In Plato’s political philosophy what mattered in government was to achieve _____________ and ____________________ .

21. Aristotle conceived God primarily as ________________ or _____________________ .

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Add the following question and changes in red on page 425:

22. The Stoics believed that the entire universe is an______________, it forms part of a whole cosmos in which all contradictions are resolved for the ultimate good. The universe then follows a determined logical path that leads to a final perfection. All the things that happens in life, good and evil, is rigidly _______________in accordance to a rational purpose. This course of the universe is unchangeable. Therefore, no individual could escape or change his________________, no one was master of his fate.

23. The stoics believed that the most important good in life was is the_____________________, and they placed emphasis on _______________and ____________________as main virtues.

24. Epicurean believed that the highest good was to seek __________________ .

25. Epicurean teachings and politics were based on _______________________. The highest of all pleasures is the__________________________________, in complete absence of mental and physical pain. This can be achieved by eliminating ___________.

26.The Cynics argued that man should seek to live a ___________________ , and their goal was to attain __________________ .

27. During the Hellenistic civilization the _______________ philosophy agreed with the Sophists because they believe there were no absolute truths or standards.

28. Explain why these four Hellenic philosophical schools, Stoic, Epicureans, Cynics and Skeptics did not offer any solutions or encouraged people to make reforms to solve their problems. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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29. What were four important characteristics of Greek cultural achievement?

_________________ / ___________________ / _____________________ /________________

30. In what ways was the art of the Greek different from the arts of other people and eras of antiquity? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

31. The three major periods of ancient Greek are were ________________, _______________, _______________________ .

32. Briefly give one characteristic of each period of Greek art that is different from the other two.

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33. Greek theater grew out of ______________________________________ .

34. Explain how our democracy differs from the Athenian democracy. Do you think we could have a democracy that would operate exactly like Athens in the USA today? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

35. Briefly explain why Socrates, Theognis of Megara, and Isocrates were critical of Athenian democracy. Do you agree or disagree with them and explain why? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

36. The Greeks conceived freedom in various dimensions which were ________________________, _____________________, ___________________________. .

37. List four major achievements of the Golden Age of Athens (Classical Greece, 5th century B.C.). _________________________, ______________________________, _____________________________, __________________________________________ .


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