Genome Mapping Can Human

Genome Ma Show more Can a bio major edit this and tell me if I can adjust/Make improvements please and thanks Genome Mapping Can Human beings largest problems be solved by decoding a microscopic transcription? DNA sequencing might tell us how to cure deadly diseases. Is the answer to all that plagues the human race written in the genetic code of every living person on earth? Some scientists think yes! By understanding all that makes up human life we will be able to extend our own mortality. Through DNA sequencing researchers are to find patterns that helps scientist understand the nature of illnesses and disease. To observe DNA scientists have developed technology that has the ability to separate it into pieces for examination. Knowing what technologies are used and how they came about helps us understand why genetic mapping is important. Gel electrophoresis is used to run sequencing on the DNA samples different genomes have different lengths of DNA the electrophoresis allows us to take those pieces and look at how they differ from one another. The machine itself creates an electrical field and runs it through a gel plate a Jello-like mold is casted with the fragmented DNA inside. The gel plate is then inserted into the appropriate place inside of the machine it is then electrically charged resulting in the stretching or lengthening of the suspended DNA. The longer the sequenced DNA is the greater amount of genetic matter in the specific sequence (Whats a Genome). In addition the terminating DNA base is identified by a radioactive marker each fragment traveling various lengths the dividing factors of each fragment is determined by the rate of vigor and movement through the gel matrix after the electric field is applied. The first electrophoresis was created by Frederick Sanger in 1977 (HGP). All the explaining can still leave a person who has never seen this experiment performed a bit confused to put simply imagine a snail race has been incapsulated in Jello as soon as the first snail has finished. The longest strand of DNA would be the finisher and the shorter strands would follow that same order the second longest is second place and so on. The snail trail is the DNA length comparatively. After breaking a genome down it must be examined and put back together. DNA is similar to pieces of a puzzle the right piece must fit into the right place. At first it seems like a simple process because each individual strand is matched by the opposite strand forming base pairs DNA is usually formed by a double helix and can only be matched up in a specified way. The base pairs are only formed when adenine (A) lines up with thymine (T) and guanine (G) with cytosine (C) (Base Pair). The problem lies in how DNA is natural patterned many of the individual helixs genetic pieces are so similar they can easily fit into the wrong place making this genome puzzle very tricky to put back together but its not till a biologist can put the genome back together till she/he fully understands the sequence (Whats a Genome). Other than electrophoresis many technologies have been created to help identify genes polymerized chain reaction technology created in 1983 by Kary Mullis allows scientists to amplify the rate at which DNA replicates. These genetic copies are used to diagnose diseases identify bacteria and viruses. It is basically a DNA photocopier denaturing DNA with a heat source or separating it into individual strands then applying Taq polymerase an enzyme that will synthesis the strands of DNA using the original strands as a template (similar to the process of tRNA). The process is repeated creating a logarithmic pattern that keeps duplicating over the duration of the denaturing and synthesizing processes (PCR factsheet). After PCR gel electrophoresis can be used to check and verify the synthesis. They work hand in hand to make sure the data matches each other confirming correct sequencing (Gaunt & Hinks). How people mapped their genome. The Human Genome Project was a word wide collaborative effort to map and understand every last gene belonging to Homo sapiens. A genome is the cumulative grouping of all genes or genetic material in a cell or organism. In short what was discovered was that the human body harbors any where from 50000 to 140000 genes. A great quote on the importance of this research came from Mr. Francis Collins; Its a history book a narrative of the journey of our species through time. Its a shop manual with an incredibly detailed blueprint for building every human cell. And its a transformative textbook of medicine with insights that will give health care providers immense new powers to treat prevent and cure disease. end quote (HGP). This quote resonates with me I had this very same thought when I began to research this topic and it almost mirrors my original thesis! What good has come from this type of work? Genetic sequencing is becoming a more and more relevant practice embryo and fetal screening can detect disease and potential birth defects. Through these examinations doctors can determine if the child is at risk or in some cases has a genetic abnormality that will potentially limit his/her functionality and quality of life. In the case of Phenylketonuria commonly referred to as PKU a child may develop severe learning disabilities and behavioral problems due to PKU. The build up of the amino acid Phenylalanine occurs when a child has PKU the build up causes these dramatic effects. The lack of or mutation of the PAH gene is what is identified during screening it is an autosomal receive gene and both parents must have it to pass it to the child. PKU is a treatable and the symptoms can be suppressed if diagnosed early prenatal screenings are able to detect this genetic disorder and preventative measures can ensure a healthy normal life for your child (Phenylketonuria). This is one of many examples I can bring up cystic fibroses and Huntingtons disease are other note worthy discoveries that have been genetically decoded (HGP). Research in DNA sequencing from animals plant and bacteria has become greatly useful for helping understand how we as humans are effected by other living organisms. Disease and cures can be further understood in studying the genetic material of these terrestrial species. Mice and rats are often used in cancer research for many reasons during the completion of mapping the human genome the mouse genome was completed (HGP). Mice and rats have similar genetic make up as humans they are small and easy to handle and they have a shorter life span which shows us an amplified rate of change (it comparatively expresses a faster return on data because the short life of rodent can be scaled to the longer life of a human). Lab rats are often the go to for cancer research The National Cancer Institute have used rat models for decades. As of late there has been genetic data to link the research on rats to human disease The RGSP (Rat Genome Sequence Project) which is put together by the same company (NHLBI) that funded the HGP has finally bridged the gap. Orthologs are genes in diverged or different species that have evolved from a common ancestry. Several thousand disease effected orthologs have been identified in both humans and rats rats have a shorter DNA repeat genes than the repeat genes found in humans. It appears that of all the disease categories the most promising research is in pulmonary haematological and immune categories showing the closest relationship between rats and humans. Overall sequencing mice and rats has shown a great amount of evolutionary data that links the three of us to our mammalian origin. (genome sequence). What about sequencing plants genetic material can understanding plant DNA be relevant to human health? Hell-th yeah (word play) I mean of course it can and when humans put their bias behavior aside we can let scientist dig up the facts and get to the root of plants with negative stigma. With all the cute language aside scientist in America are finally beginning to research cannabis plant varieties for possible medical value. DNA sequencing is at the for front of both the biology and chemistry research departments involved with investigation of this taboo plant. Many genes have been sequenced and the results are coming back with high resolution into the plant matters potential. Many powerful anti-inflammatory compounds have been isolated and possible anti-tumor properties are being researched for future medical application (Terpenes and Cannabis). The research has shown several terpenes being identified in the plant and cannabinoids are synergistic with specific terpenes in the plant. The different associative chemical properties and their relations to one another are unique to individual staring of cannabis and these different strains are being mapped for specific treatment options. A direct caption from Steephilllab: Limonenes have antidepressant anxiety-relief immuno-stimulant (similar to garlic) anti-tumor and anti-fungal/bacterial properties and also aid in treating gastric reflux including treatment of esophageal ulcers. Limonenes can be used topically as an antiseptic agent and are used to repel insects: the leaves of the lemon or grapefruit tree are used for this purpose. Limonenes have synergies with THC-A CBD-A CBC-A CBC CBC CBG Caryophyllene Oxide and Linalool. This is one example of what DNA research in one prohibited and bastardized plant can offer in the way of low risk medicinal relief. To legitimize the medical aspect of cannabis each strand must be mapped its chemical properties identified and a fingerprint created for the specific strain (Terpenes and Cannabis). The research performed on DNA sequencing is far from over and new techniques are being used and created every day. As you can see the data gathered in humans animals and plants is very beneficial to understanding diseases that have been plaguing humanity for decades and some even for centuries. The combination of human disease researched in animal studies and applications of plants chemical properties are showing potential cures for diseases like cancer and tumor growth. In several studies using mice and rat models cannabis most notorious chemical property delta-9-THC was given in gavage the various doses proved to show a reduction in benign tumor development. The National Cancer Institute states; the decreases incidences in tumor growth where observed in (mammary gland uterus pituitary testis and pancreas) were also noted in the rats (Cannabis and Cannabinoids). Cannabis has also shown other means of anti-tumor development both delta-9-THC and delta-8-THC have shown to kill tumor cells through apoptosis programed cell death also cell growth inhibition the prevention of blood vessel formation at tumor (tumor angiogenesis invasion) and the spreading of cancer through metastasis (Cannabis and Cannabinoids). The really interesting part here is the programed cell death target the abnormal tumor growth but not the normal tissue surrounding it (Cannabis and Cannabinoids)! Its important to explain the use of DNA sequencing technology and its applications in Humans animals and plants. The three fields of biological studies are combined to observe potential medical advances for future. It is evident that genome mapping has helped us understand how life has evolved how disease has effected human beings on a genetic level how different species of life can lend insight understanding and potential answers to human lifes most susceptible weakness. With out a doubt Humans through these research practices are on the right path to finding cures and more practical treatments for disease and genetic defects But are we also at risk from genetic experimentation as well? The possibility exists that people especially american people have a high risk of genetic related complications do to exposure of genetically engineered and modified foods. Not much is known about potential long term threats of genetically modified food most scientists agree there are no threats while other still are skeptical. There are no facts that have hardcore evidence that GE and GMO cause health problems but the extreme increase in food allergies are drawing attention to both the grain soy and peanut industries. According to the Institute for Responsible Technology they cited a study that quoted A skin prick allergy test shows that some people react to GM soy but not to wild natural soy (IRT) (Hye-Yung Yum & Soo-Young Lee). This comparison exemplifies one type of allergy to GM soy bean and no allergic reaction to a wild soy bean. Without going to far off course I like to ask questions; I have demonstrated all the good that genetic research has done and potentially can do but what about the negative will the good out way the bad? In my opinion based my research yes the good of the science will prevail especially if science is done to expose the any actual negative health risks on people and our environment. After uncovering the technology used for DNA sequencing and showing what type of research has been done on humans animals and plants and how all of these studies relate to one another in the overall scheme of benefiting man/womankind. We discover there is already evidence of effective treatment from diagnoses of disease from fetal screenings. We understand that use of rat and mice models as an effective way to measure the length of mortality in a diseased animal and also the potential treatments of those diseases. We also have learned history of gene evolution by examining these creatures and comparing them to our own genome blueprint. To further that we are now looking at the genes of plants mapping out what once a proclaimed a medicinally useless drug (a loose definition of a schedule 1 narcotic) is now unveiling a very realistic potential for tumor suppressing treatments and cancer fighting properties. Playing devils advocate we must take a look at the potential risks that genetic research (at least the knowledge and understanding of genetics) has brought to industry. We see that there may be dangers in our food from genetic manipulation but not enough is really known as of yet but speculation has begun. I do think the future of medicine is bio-medical and that by at least understand the intricacies of genetics will play a role in our survival as a species. I also can concur that understanding the human genome is like opening a manual for the human body and also serves as history log for all of our cumulative experiences are imprinted into our DNA. Work Cited Biological Sciences Medical Sciences: Murim Choi Ute I. Scholl Weizhen Ji Tiewen Liu Irina R. Tikhonova Paul Zumbo Ahmet Nayir Ay?in Bakkalo?lu Seza zen Sami Sanjad Carol Nelson-Williams Anita Farhi Shrikant Mane and Richard P. Litton Genetic diagnosis by whole exome capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing PNAS 2009 106 (45) 19096-19101; published ahead of print October 27 2009 doi:10.1073/pnas.0910672106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/45/19096.full Christenson S. (1996 January 1). The Ethical Considerations of Genetic Screening. Retrieved October 17 2014 from http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students98/christenson.htm All About The Human Genome Project (HGP). (n.d.). Retrieved October 17 2014 from http://www.genome.gov/10001772 Whats a Genome? (n.d.). Retrieved October 17 2014 from http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/whats_a_genome/Chp2_2.shtml KAISER J. (2008 January 25). A Plan to Capture Human Diversity in 1000 Genomes. Retrieved October 17 2014 from http://usf.usfca.edu/fac_staff/dever/genome_science.pdf Daroy M Lopez J Torres B Loy M Tuao P Matias R. Identification of unknown ocular pathogens in clinically suspected eye infections using ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Clinical Microbiology And Infection: The Official Publication Of The European Society Of Clinical Microbiology And Infectious Diseases [serial online]. May 2011;17(5):776-779. Available from: MEDLINE with Full Text Ipswich MA. Accessed October 17 2014. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.library.esc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1b99368d-a3d1-4857-9
f0-4c595397ecf8%40sessionmgr198&vid=7&hid=104 Base pair. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9 2014 from http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Base_pair.html Phenylketonuria. (2014 December 1). Retrieved December 9 2014 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/phenylketonuria PCR Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9 2014 from http://www.genome.gov/10000207 Gaunt T. & Hinks L. (n.d.). Manual 768 or 384 well microplate gel dry electrophoresis for PCR checking and SNP genotyping. Retrieved December 9 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154236/ Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution. (2014 January 1). Retrieved December 9 2014 from http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v428/n6982/full/nature02426.html Terpenes and Cannabis Steep Hill Labs Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11 2014 from http://steephilllab.com/terpenes-and-cannabis/?subscribe=success#blog_subscription-2 Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ). (n.d.). Retrieved December 11 2014 from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/cannabis/healthprofessional/page1/AllPages Institute for Responsible Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved December 15 2014 from http://www.responsibletechnology.org/health-risks Hye-Yung Yum Soo-Young Lee Kyung-Eun Lee Myung-Hyun Sohn Kyu-Earn Kim Genetically Modified and Wild Soybeans: An immunologic comparison Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 26 no. 3 (MayJune 2005): 210-216(7). Show less


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